Archivos de etiquetas: clases en grupos y particulares de inglés granollers

“Prefixes “

“Prefixes

One way to increase your vocabulary is to learn to  reognize and to use prefixes.
A prefix: is one   or    two more syllables palced in front of  a root word  to change the meaning of the root
Prefix         root                   new word
Dis          +   appear     =          disappear
Re            +  appear     =          reappear
Pre          +   appear     =          preappear

PrefixesHaving More ThanOne  Meaning
Dis         
in-    ir –  il –   im–  
pro-
re-
 super
trans– 
 un-

“Prefixes “  — ( DIS )

Prefix                  Meaning            Example 
         
 1.  dis                    Opposite of          distrust      
Itmeans : the  opposite of trust

2. dis                         Depriving of       dispirit     
Itmeans : to  deprive of cheerful spirits

 3.Dis                             Away  –           dispacth                      


itmeans : to  send off o away                     
 
 

 “Prefixes “  — ( in / ir / il / im)

Meaning            Example          
 1. not                  incomplete / not complete
                             impossible / notpossible
                              irregular /  not regular
2. In, Into          investigate  / to look into              
 3.Very            illustrious / shining  brightly / famous  
 
“Prefixes “  — (  Pro)
 Meaning                 Example          
 1. In favor of         procapitalism/
                                 in favor of  capitalism
                             
2. Forward, ahead        propel/
                                            to push forward    

          
 “Prefixes “  — (  Re)
Meaning                 Example          
 1. Again                  preplant /
                                 to plant again
                             
2. Back                      Repay  /
                                     to pay back      


“Prefixes “  — (  Super )    

  Meaning                                Example          
 1. Over and above               superman /
                                                   more than  human
                             
2. Verylarge                       supertank   /
                                                 very  large  tank  
              
    
 “Prefixes “  — (  Trans )

 Meaning                                Example          
 1. across                transatlantic /
                                   across  the  atlantic 
                             
2. Beyond                     transnational    /
                            beyond  national  boundaries     
           
    
“Prefixes “  — (  Un )

 Meaning                                Example          
 1. not                           unafraid  /
                                       not  afraid  
                             
2. Theopposite of                untie/
                                             the  opposite of tie

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“Anomalous Finites “

“Anomalous 

Are called  sometimes : Auxiliary verbs,

special finites  or  modal auxiliaries .

First year students should be 

acquainted with the following :

Be, have , do , did, can, couldmust,

shall,will

Second  year students should be 

acquainted with the following :

 should, would, may , might, ought to,

daren’t, needn’t, had better, would rather

 

Have  conjugated without“ do “

 In American English  “have

normally  takes“ do “ for all its uses

except Perfect tenses.

A)When  meaning  to  possess”     or  ownan objector a characteristic.

e.g:

My mother hasn’t  any car

A circle hasn’t any  corners


“Anomalous — Have  “

Have  conjugated  with“ do “

B) Causative 

  

e.g:

My mother  didn’t  have  it   mended

 We  didn’t  have  the car washed 

Have  conjugated  with“ do “

c) Meaning  to  “experience   

e.g:

My mother  did  have a good time last night

 

We  didn’t  have   trouble  to  find  it.

Have  to   conjugated  without  or  with“ do “

replacingMust

D) Meaning  to  “Must “   

e.g:

     Have  you   to  study  hard?

    Doyou  have  to  study   hard

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Adjective using That- clause “

Today, we will study

Adjective using Thatclause  “

Certain adjectives can be postmodified  by a

That-clause

These include  past participles   that are  used as

adjectives:

e.G

Our  mothers were sure  that  we  would  agree.

Our  mothers   were   sure  we would agree.


So: “AdjectiveusingThat-clause 

after   certains adjectives  , including :

 afraid     alarmed    amazed    amused    angry

Anxious   ashamed    astonished      confident 

Delighted    depressed   determined   disgusted

Glad    happy   hopeful     optimistic     sorry  



So:  Adjective  using

To-infinitive

theyexpress a feeling , and “to “

gives the  cause of the  feeling

 

e.g .

Amused     angry     annoyed        ashamed  

Bored      concerned      content      delighted

Depressed  disappointed    disgusted  excited

Pleased     proud     sad       surprised    upset

So:  Adjectiveusing

To-infinitive

 theyexpress a feeling , and “to “

gives the  cause of the  feeling

So the To-clause  often has a perfect  

infinitive

  e.g .

 

Myfather  was  pleased  to have  passed  the 

exam

                                        Perfect  infinitive

Itmeans : He was  pleased to pass  the  exam

                  :

He was happy  that he himself passed  the   exam.

So:  AdjectiveusingTo-

infinitive

they expressan attitude towards the action

of the  clause .

the attitude is previous to  the  action. So a

perfect infinitve  is not  possible here.

 

e.g .

 

He is prepared to lend us the money

Are you afraid  to go out in the  storm ?


 So:  AdjectiveusingTo-

infinitive

  e.g .

 afraid        apt       curious       determine 

Eager       free         impatient     inclined

Keen        prepared    ready        reluctant

Unwilling     willing   

  

So:  AdjectiveusingTo-

infinitive

 Prompt / quick / and slow  can   also be

postmodified  with “ to –clause “ , but  with a

different   meaning:. 

 

e.g .

 

They  were  quick to complain

Itmeans: they  complained   immediately

Our  teacher  were   slow to notice

Itmeans: He doesnot  notice  immediately

The villagers  were  prompt to offer help.

Itmeans : they  offered help immedialely

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“Rules of irregular Verbs “

The past tense form is used alone ( finite verb ). 
Group . 3 – Another group of  irregular verbs are those  that add  / N / or / EN /  to  the past form  to make  the past participle.
Present                                          Past             PAST  PARTICIPLE
Bear                                                 Bore                 BORN
Beat                                                  beat                  BEATEN
Bite                                                   Bit                     BITTEN
Break                                               broke                BROKEN
Choose                                           Chose                 CHOSEN
Freeze                                            Froze                   FROZEN 
Speak                                            Spoke                  SPOKEN
Steal                                              stole                      STOLEN
Swear                                           Swore                    SWORN
Tear                                              Tore                       TORN

Wear                                            wore                        WORN


THE AUXILIARY VERB “ TO DO “ in the past  in negative

in all the persons
  I / YOU / WE / THEY       Did not
In 3º person singular
SHE / HE / IT   Did  not

PRONUNCIATION
The diphthongs , / OI /  OY  /   
These diphthongs offer no difficulties ; both are always  pronounce  oi /
   Oil            boil            boy           joy               choice       coin          point          soil          enjoy             noise
Except :  choir  is pronounced /  ‘kwaɪəʳ  /      coro
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THE PRESENT PARTICIPLE

READING: THE TORN HAT  “
Look at my hat ; It is torn. It is an old hat . I have a new at home, but this is an old one. I am not living in the city. I am living in the country. My parents are  in the country too. We live in the country.
In the city there are many houses ; the air is not pure. In the country there are many trees ; the air is very pure. I like the country very much. I like to live in the country.
We live near a small village. There is a school in that village. I go every day to school with my sisters and my little brother. The school is not far from our house.
I have many classmates and many friends. All my classmates are my friends. All my schoolmates are my friends.

THE PRESENT PARTICIPLE 
The present participle of all the verbs is formed by adding ( ING ) TO the root of the verb. E.g
To read  — reading          to speak –speaking
To study  – studying            to  listen  –listening
To say —– saying                 to run  — running
To   look  —– looking         to give  —— giving
So: “NOUNS
NOUNS  is the name of anything like  the names of persons, things and animals 
e.g  ,  
Names of persons :   Mario , Maria , Laia
Names of things  :    Pencil, table, ruler
Names of  animals :  Dog, elephant, cat
The gender of the nouns are two : SINGULAR and PLURAL
Pencil      ( singular )
Pencils    ( Plural
Most nouns form their plural by adding an “ S “ to the singular
Pencil   —–  pencils
 
VERBS ENDING “y”
However, when a verb ends in y immediately preceded by a vowel, the y is not changed before the ending s is added. 
BareInfinitive    ThirdPerson Singular
Say                                   says
Enjoy                              enjoys
Buy                                   buys

TONGUE TWISTER
Betty bought butter but the butter was bitter, so Betty bought better butter to make the bitter butter better.
_______________________ 
A box of mixed biscuits, a mixed biscuit box.

PRONUNCIATION
Short   “  A “ —THIS “ A “HAS A MIDDEL SOUND BETWEEN “ A   y la E “  IN SPANISH. POHNETIC SYMBOL ( æ ) 
bat                    can                    am                  at                    man                  rat                  cat                   bad                   bag                   sat                   hand                than
had                     cap                   ham                back               stand               sand                  hat                    fan                   map                 glad                  lamp               damp
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“Rules of irregular Verbs “

The past tense form is used alone ( finite verb ). 
Group . 2 – the irregular verbs are those  that have  a different form   in the past as in the present.
Present                                   Past
Bring                               Brought
Catch                              caught
Dive                                 Dove
Fight                               fought
Flee                                 Fled
Fling                               flung
Get                                   got
Lead                                led
Lose                                lost
Say                                 said
Shine                            shone
Sit                                  sat
Sting                           stung
Swing                         swung



THE AUXILIARY VERB “ TO DO “ in the past
in all the persons
  I / YOU / WE / THEY       Did
In 3º person singular
SHE / HE / IT   Did 

 PRONUNCIATION
The diphthongs , / OU  /  are very irregular
In the following is pronounced /  Ʌ /
   Cousin            trouble            rough           couple               courtesy       Double             young              country          courage          flourish
In the following is pronounced /  O /
Bought      brought      fought       ought       sought    thought
In cough  , ou is equivalent to / Ʌ /   __/ KɅf /

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So:“PERSONAL PRONOUNS “

READING:   OUR NEW ENGLISH BOOK “

 

This is my new English book. I have a new English Book. Look at my book. Look at it. Have you a new English book?.

In my class all the pupils have a new English book. We have a new English book. We are learning English. I can read in English. I can speak. I like English. All the pupils like English.

Robert has a book. Mary has a one also. Look at Robert and Mary. They are reading. Robert and Mary are brother and sister. They go to school. Robert is in a school for boys. Mary is in a school for girls.

They are studying English at school. They have an English teacher. They are good pupils.


So:PERSONAL PRONOUNS “ 


                          SINGULAR                   PLURAL

1º PERSON          I                                    WE

2º PERSON        YOU                             YOU

3º PERSON   SHE, HE , IT                  THEY



So: “VERB INFLECTIONS  “

  The verbs have inflection to show the gender and the number. In all the persons will be the same, except in the 3º person singular that we must add , “S “, OR “ ES “

e.g  ,  CONJUGATION :     to speak

 

in all the persons

I / YOU / WE / THEY       SPEAK

 In 3º person singular

SHE / HE / IT  SPEAKS

  SHE / HE / IT  COMES


 

Verbs ending in y

 

Some verbs change their spelling when s is added in the third person singular.

When a verb ends in y immediately preceded by a consonant, the y is changed to ie before the ending s is added. In each of the following examples, the consonant immediately preceding the final y is underlined.

Bare Infinitive          Third Person Singular

Study                                     studies

Fly                                             flies

Carry                                         carries


TONGUE TWISTER

A good cook could cook as much cookies as a good cook who could cook cookies

_____________________________

I saw a saw that could out saw any other saw I ever saw.


PRONUNCIATION


The sound  “ U “ has the long  sound “ oo “ , and “ iu “ in the following words. Notice that the “ U “ is preceded by “ r  / l / j / ch.

Rude                  fruit                truth            blue                  rural                 flute   

Rumor              true                 ruin                glue                  brutal              jurist

Cruel                 truly               frugal             rule                 plural               chute


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