Publicaciones de la categoría: ket examen preparation en granollers

breathe

breathe Listen to audio/ˈbri:ð/ verb

breathes; breathed; breath·ing

1 : to move air into and out of your lungs : to inhale and exhale [no obj] Relax and breathe deeply. He was breathing hard from running. The patient suddenly stopped breathing. I can hardly breathe with all this smoke. [+ obj] He wants to live where he can breathe clean/fresh air.

2 a : to send (something) out from your lungs through your mouth or nose [+ obj] a dragon that breathes fireoften + out breathing out [=exhaling] carbon dioxide [no obj] He breathed [=blew] on the glass and wiped it clean.often + out Breathe out through your nose.
b : to take (something) into your lungs through your mouth or nose [+ obj] You shouldn’t be breathing [=inhaling] those fumes. People usually contract the virus by breathing contaminated air.often + in You shouldn’t be breathing in those fumes. [no obj] Breathe deeply and then exhale.usually + in Breathe in through your nose.

3 [no obj] : to be alive
I’ll never give up as long as I’m still breathing. a living, breathing human being

4 [no obj] : to pause and rest before continuing
We had barely stopped to breathe before we were on the go again.

5 [+ obj] : to bring (something) into a thing
City leaders hope the project will breathe vitality/energy into the downtown. Their leadership breathed new life into the movement. [=gave new energy to the movement]

6 [no obj] : to feel able to think or act freely
I need some room to breathe. = I need some breathing room/space.

7 [no obj] a : to allow air to pass through
a fabric that breathes
b : to be cooled or refreshed by air that passes through clothing
Cotton clothing lets your skin breathe.

8 [+ obj] : to say (something) very quietly
It’s beautiful, she breathed.usually used in the phrase breathe a word Don’t breathe a word of/about this to anyone! [=do not say anything about this to anyone]

9 [no obj] of wine : to develop a better flavor because of contact with air
Open the bottle a few minutes before you want to drink it so that the wine can breathe.

breathe a sigh of relief

: to relax because something you have been worrying about is not a problem or danger anymore : to feel relieved
We all breathed a sigh of relief when we heard that they were safe.
breathe down someone’s neck

1 : to chase after someone closely
The cops were breathing down our necks.

2 : to watch someone carefully and constantly
His parents are always breathing down his neck.

breathe easy or breathe easier or breathe easily or breathe freely

: to feel relief from pressure, danger, etc.
I’ll breathe easier once this whole ordeal is over. You can breathe easy knowing that your children are safe.
breathe your lastsee 4last
live and breathe

If you live and breathe something, you spend a great deal of time, thought, or effort on that thing.
She lives and breathes music. They live and breathe their work.
breath·able Listen to audio /ˈbri:ðəbəl/ adjective [more breathable; most breathable]
a breathable fabric [=a fabric that allows air to pass through]
— breathing noun [noncount]
Her breathing is heavy/shallow/labored.often used before another noun We’ll begin with some breathing exercises. He has breathing problems.see also heavy breathing at 1heavy

accustomed

ac·cus·tomed Listen to audioˈkʌstəmd/ adjective
[more accustomed; most 1 : familiar with something so that it seems normal or usual — to  She is accustomed to [=used to] life/living on the farm.  We have become/grown/gotten more accustomed to their traditions and routines.  He is accustomed to doing what he wants to do. [=he usually does what he wants to do]

2 always used before a noun, formal : usual or regular 
 at her accustomed [=customary] lunch hour  She arrived early enough to get her accustomed seat in the front row.

IRONY

iro·ny Listen to audio/ˈaɪrəni/ noun

plural iro·nies

1 [noncount] : the use of words that mean the opposite of what you really think especially in order to be funny 
 a writer known for her clever use of irony  What a beautiful view, he said, his voice dripping withirony, as he looked out the window at the alley.  She described her vacation with heavy irony as an educational experience.  compare sarcasm

2 : a situation that is strange or funny because things happen in a way that seems to be the opposite of what you expected [count]  It was a tragic irony that he made himself sick by worrying so much about his health.  The (awful/bitter) irony is that in trying to forget her, he thought of her even more.  That’s just one of life’s little ironies. [noncount]  The irony of the situation was apparent to everyone.  He has a strong sense of irony.

NOT is an adverb of negation

GRAMMAR
 NOT    is an adverb of negation, it is placed after the verb.
e.g  ,  CONJUGATION :     to be
VERB: to be
in 1º the persons singular 
I       am   not reading
In 3º person singular
SHE   is  not studying
 HE is not  speaking
  IT   IS  not saying
in all the persons
 YOU are not  running
WE are not  looking
THEY  are not giving    
This is called INDICATIVE MOOD IN PRESENT TENSES.

PREFIXES – ONE WAY TO INCREASE YOUR VOCABULARY

“Prefixes

One way to increase your vocabulary is to learn to reoganize and to use prefixes.

A prefix: is one or two more syllables palced in front of  a root word to change the meaning of the root

Prefix         root                   new word

Dis          +   appear     =          disappear

Re            +  appear     =          reappear

Pre          +   appear     =          preappear

Some prefixes have a single, unchanging meaning.

Prefixes Having a Single Meaning

Prefix                Meaning                Example

Bene-                  good                       benefit

Circum             around               circumscribe

Equi                   equal                     equidisntat

Extra-                  outside          extracurricular

Intra                   within             intrastate

Intro                  into                  intospect




Prefix                Meaning                Example

Mal –                   bad                       maltreat

Mis-                    wrong                   misspell

Non –                    not                      nonworking  

Pre –                    before                  predawn

Sub –          under or below              subzero

 

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CONTIONAL AND UNREAL PAST

Today, we will study Conditional and Unreal  Past  

   In English we can express three important ideas with if
1- Likely or Probable

2- Unlikely or improbable

3- Impossible

So: Likely or probable 

Main clauseFuture ;  if …. Present   .
e.G
He will come if  you call him.
It means : something will happen if a certain  condition is fullfilled.

***Like clauses begining with Whenas soon as “, etc. “ Ifclausesalso have  no “ shall / will / would / shouldin them.

So: Unlikely or improbable 




Main clauseConditional ;  if …. Past   .

e.G

He would  come if  you called him.

It means : The probable result of a  certain  condition that we suppose  or imagen .

*** The “ ifclause “ is not taking place at this moment , but I can imagine the probable result. We inlude here all the Unreal Ifs “, Like:

If you were a fish, the cat wouldn’t  eat you.

So: “Impossible  

Main clauseConditional  perfect ;  if …. Past  perfect   .

e.G

He would  have come if  you  had called him.

It means :  He didn’t come ! Why ? Because you didn’t call him. .

*** All number three types are impossible  ideas, because we know  the condition was not fullfilled , but  we like to imagen the result  if ……….

 

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COUNTABLES AND UNCOUNTABLES

Today, we will study Countables and Uncountables  “


Things we cannot count have no indefinite article , and  usually no plural .

e.g 
Ink / water / wood / darkness / butter / cheese / drink / grass  / coffee / sand / rain / air

Remember that only some countables take “a “ or “ an “  .Indefinite Articles

e.g     words beginning with consonat:

A dog         a potato     a student     a chair

A pen         a cow          a fish            a room

Words beginning with vowels :

An Englishman    an engine   an eye    an elephant

An Australian       an egg    an apple     an orphan

So, Uncountable nouns , and  countables in the plural are preceded by SomeWhen “ a certain quantity, or number “ is implied.
e,g :
Bread is good for us
it means : all bread, in general.

Give me some bread.
It means: a certain quantity

 “ a or anis used for any one example of a countable noun. The plural of this is some

Somemeans an unknown number of that noun.
E,g:
I
have a  red book; I buy some black books

There is / there areintroduced this idea instead of the simple verb to be.

e.gThere is a broken chair in the corner of the room.

There were some books on this table yesterday.

There  will be a pinic in the forest next Friday.

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DIFFERENT BETWEEN LIKE AND AS

Today, we will studyThe different betweenLike “ and “ As “

“ AS “ is a preposition, it meansin the capacity of  or role of “

e.G

As your lawyer I advise you to wait

We need people to act as guides

 So: “ AS “Prepositional  Phrasal   

after  the object of certains verbs , including :

Accept  as              to acknowledge as       to claim as
To characterise as    to class as           to count as  
To define as            to describe as               to intend as
To look on as        to recognise as           to  regard as

To see as                 to treat as                         to use  as

 
  e.g .
At one time we regarded emigration as our only solution
It means : we thought emigration was our only solution.
I often have to use a knife as a screwdriver.
So:  Likemeans :” similar to “ or “ in the manner of “
e.g  Tom sings like his father 
It means : He sings in a similar way.
She is quite like her sister
It means: she is quite similar to her sister.
“As “ – Subordinator 
.correspond to preposition Like, it means “ in a way similar to “
e.G :
Tom sings as his father
It means : He sings in a way similar to his father does
Mrs. Lupe spoke as an actress speaks.It means : She spoke in a way similiar to an actress does
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It means : I use a knife to do the job of a screwdriver.

FUTURE AND FUTURE PERFECT

Today, we will study Future and Future perfect  “

  The grammarbook rules for Shalland Will are already antiquated; even the increasingly  popular  use of Going to “ sounds out of place sometimes, althought wishful thinking has tried to make it  the solution to all problems.

Two golden rules :

1 – Beware of the innocent-looking going to “ form

2- When in doubt usewill”.

So: “Going to “

   As a future form , it is not a pure futurity .

With persons : has meaning of intention or certainty

e.G
He’s going to give me a new one tomorrow.
So you are off to China, are you ? Well , you are going to see some queer things there.

So: “Going to “

As a future form , it is not a pure futurity .

With things : has meaning of probability or inevitability  in the mind of the speaker.

e.G

Look out ! The tram is going to overturn.
What’s going to happen next ?

So: “Pure future

Normal pure or colourless future is expressed by Shall “ in the First Person Singular and Plural

I shall             —        We   shall

It must be tacitly understood that when talking about people, the possibility of wish, will, promise , or intention is always like to be present

So: “Pure future

Normal pure or colourless future is expressed by Will “ in others person , Singular and Plural

HE /She / it    will       — singular

 You / they     will       — Plural

 The purest futures are the least personal ones, especially when the future action is made to depend upon some external factor, as with If “  or Whenclauses

Except  in questions , the Willformis very commonly heard for all persons.

So: “Pure future

I shall  know about him from his next letter

We   shall  stay here till you come back.

It must be tacitly understood that when talking about people, the possibility of wish, will, promise , or intention is always like to be present
 

So: “Pure future

HE  will  know about her from her next letter

You  will  stay here till he  comes back.

It must be tacitly understood that when talking about people, the possibility of wish, will, promise , or intention is always like to be present
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The different between “ Like “ and “ As “

Today, we will studyThe different betweenLike “ and “ As “

“ AS “ is a preposition, it meansin the capacity of  or role of “

e.G

As your lawyer I advise you to wait

We need people to act as guides

 So: “ AS “Prepositional  Phrasal   

after  the object of certains verbs , including :

Accept  as              to acknowledge as       to claim as
To characterise as    to class as           to count as  
To define as            to describe as               to intend as
To look on as        to recognise as           to  regard as

To see as                 to treat as                         to use  as

 
  e.g .
At one time we regarded emigration as our only solution
It means : we thought emigration was our only solution.
I often have to use a knife as a screwdriver.
So:  Likemeans :” similar to “ or “ in the manner of “
e.g  Tom sings like his father 
It means : He sings in a similar way.
She is quite like her sister
It means: she is quite similar to her sister.
“As “ – Subordinator 
.correspond to preposition Like, it means “ in a way similar to “
e.G :
Tom sings as his father
It means : He sings in a way similar to his father does
Mrs. Lupe spoke as an actress speaks.It means : She spoke in a way similiar to an actress does
I’m your Personal English Coach in Granollers, Barcelona.
You can follow me on :
See ya.
It means : I use a knife to do the job of a screwdriver.