Publicaciones de la categoría: clases de nivel avanzado de inglés en granollers


AFTER introduces a subordinate clause. It makes no sense by itself:

If you say to somebody:

After we left the cinema

that person is still waiting for you to finish the sentence. And to finish the sentence you need to

put an independent clause. So you will perhaps say:

After we left the cinema WE WENT FOR A MEAL

That’s the sentence complete.

is an isolated adverb and doesn’t play a key part in grammar structure.

refers to an already spoken or understood action:

We left the cinema. AFTERWARDS we went for a meal

AFTERWARDS has the same meaning as LATER or SUBSEQUENTLY or THEN


con·done Listen to audio/kənˈdoʊn/ verb

con·dones; con·doned; con·don·ing

[+ obj] : to forgive or approve (something that is considered wrong) : to allow (something that is considered wrong) to continue
a government that has been accused of condoning racismoften used in negative statements We cannot condone [=excuse] that kind of behavior.

The Exclamation Mark

The Exclamation

interjection, or command.

Use an exclamation point [ ! ] at the end of an emphatic declaration,

“No!” he yelled. “Do it now!”

An exclamation mark may be used to close questions that are meant to convey extreme emotion, as in

What on earth are you doing! Stop!

An exclamation mark can be inserted within parentheses to emphasize a word within a sentence.

We have some really(!) low-priced rugs on sale this week.

Note that there is no space between the last letter of the word so emphasized and the parentheses. This device should be used rarely, if ever, in formal text.

An exclamation mark will often accompany mimetically produced sounds, as in

“All night long, the dogs woof! in my neighbor’s yard” and

“The bear went Grr!, and I went left.”

If an exclamation mark is part of an italicized or underlined title, make sure that the exclamation mark is also italicized or underlined:

My favorite book is Oh, the Places You’ll Go!

(Do not add a period after such a sentence that ends with the title’s exclamation mark. The exclamation mark will also suffice to end the sentence.) If the exclamation mark is not part of a sentence-ending title, don’t italicize the exclamation mark:

I’ve asked you not to sing la Marseillaise!

In academic prose, an exclamation point is used rarely, if at all, and in newspaper writing the exclamation point is virtually nonexistent.

The Question Mark

Use a question mark [ ? ] at the end of a direct question. It is considered bad form to use a question mark in combination with other marks, although that is often done in informal prose in an attempt to convey complex tones: He told you what!? That combination (or similar combination) of punctuation marks is sometimes called an interrobang, but the interrobang currently has no role in academic prose.*

A tag question is a device used to turn a statement into a question. It nearly always consists of a pronoun, a helping verb, and sometimes the word not. Although it begins as a statement, the tag question prevails when it comes to the end-mark: use a question mark. Notice that when the statement is positive, the tag question is expressed in the negative; when the statement is negative, the tag question is positive. (There are a few exceptions to this, frequently expressing an element of surprise or sarcasm: “So you’ve made your first million, have you?” “Oh, that’s your plan, is it?”)

The following are more typical tag questions:He should quit smoking, shouldn’t he?
He shouldn’t have quit his diet, should he?
They’re not doing very well, are they?
He finished on time, didn’t he?
She does a beautiful job, doesn’t she?
Harold may come along, mightn’t he?
There were too many people on the dock, weren’t there?
(Be careful of this last one; it’s not “weren’t they?”)

Be careful not to put a question mark at the end of an indirect question.
The instructor asked the students what they were doing.
I asked my sister if she had a date.
I wonder if Cheney will run for vice president again.
I wonder whether Cheney will run again.

Be careful to distinguish between an indirect question (above), and a question that is embedded within a statement which we do want to end with a question mark.

We can get to Boston quicker, can’t we, if we take the interstate?
His question was, can we end this statement with a question mark?
She ended her remarks with a resounding why not?
I wonder: will Cheney run for office again?

Put a question mark at the end of a sentence that is, in fact, a direct question. (Sometimes writers will simply forget.) Rhetorical questions (asked when an answer is not really expected), by the way, are questions and deserve to end with a question mark:

How else should we end them, after all?
What if I said to you, “You’ve got a real problem here”? (Notice that the question mark here comes after the quotation mark and there is no period at the end of the statement.)

Sometimes a question will actually end with a series of brief questions. When that happens, especially when the brief questions are more or less follow-up questions to the main question, each of the little questions can begin with a lowercase letter and end with a question mark.

Who is responsible for executing the plan? the coach? the coaching staff? the players?

If a question mark is part of an italicized or underlined title, make sure that the question mark is also italicized:

My favorite book is Where Did He Go?

(Do not add a period after such a sentence that ends with the title’s question mark. The question mark will also suffice to end the sentence.) If the question mark is not part of a sentence-ending title, don’t italicize the question mark:

Did he sing the French national anthem, la Marseillaise?

When a question ends with an abbreviation, end the abbreviation with a period and then add the question mark.

Would everyone in the room who hasn’t received an ID card please move to the front of the line.

Didn’t he use to live in Washington, D.C.?
When a question constitutes a polite request, it is usually not followed by a question mark. This becomes more true as the request becomes longer and more complex:

The Period

The Period

Use a period at the end of a command.

  • Hand in the poster essays no later than noon on Friday.
  • In case of tremors, leave the building immediately.

Use a period at the end of an indirect question.

  • The teacher asked why Maria had left out the easy exercises.
  • My father used to wonder why Egbert’s ears were so big.

Use a period with abbreviations:

    Dr. Espinoza arrived from Washington, D.C., at 6 p.m.

Notice that when the period ending the abbreviation comes at the end of a sentence, it will also suffice to end the sentence. On the other hand, when an abbreviation ends a question or exclamation, it is appropriate to add a question mark or exclamation mark after the abbreviation-ending period:

    Did you enjoy living in Washington, D.C.?

Occasionally, a statement will end with a question. When that happens, it is appropriate to end the sentence with a question mark.

  • We can get to Boston quicker, can’t we, if we take the interstate?
  • His question was, can we end this statement with a question mark?
  • She ended her remarks with a resounding why not?
Acronyms (abbreviations [usually made up of the first letter from a series of words] which we pronounce as words, not a series of letters) usually do not require periods: NATO, NOW, VISTA, LASER, SCUBA, RADAR. Abbreviations we pronounce by spelling out the letters may or may not use periods and you will have to use a dictionary to be sure: FBI, NAACP, NCAA, U.S.A., U.N.I.C.E.F., etc.


NOUNS  is the name of anything like  the names of persons, things and animals 
 e.g  ,   
Names of persons :   Mario , Maria , Laia, Antonio.
Names of things  :    Pencil, table, ruler
Names of  animals :  Dog, elephant, cat
The gender of the nouns are two : SINGULAR and PLURAL
          Pencil      ( singular )
          Pencils    ( Plural
Most nouns form their plural by adding an “ S “ to the singular
Pencil   —–  pencils


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Short     A “ — —— ESTA  “ A “ TIENE UN SONIDO INTERMEDIO ENTRE  “ A   y la E “  EN ESPAÑOL  
bat                      can                    am                  at                    man                  rat   
cat                      bad                   bag                  sat                  hand                  than
had                     cap                   ham                back               stand                  sand
hat                     fan                   map                 glad                  lamp                  damp
Nota : Cuando la “ a “ va seguida de “ S , F o th “; o cuando la “ a “ está sola o no va seguida de consonantes. El sonido “ a “ se asemeja más a la “ a” en española.
Ask          mass       staff          ability          among             idea
Ass          grass       path        abound           amount           sofa


Name                   tame                 lame             shape              came                  plate  
Made                   fame                 cave               cane               same                  lake
Gave                     wave               safe                 slate               brave                  grape
Game                  shade                save                skate              brake                  shame

NOT is an adverb of negation

 NOT    is an adverb of negation, it is placed after the verb.
e.g  ,  CONJUGATION :     to be
VERB: to be
in 1º the persons singular 
I       am   not reading
In 3º person singular
SHE   is  not studying
 HE is not  speaking
  IT   IS  not saying
in all the persons
 YOU are not  running
WE are not  looking
THEY  are not giving    


account verb accounts; account·ed; account·ing

[+ obj] formal : to think of (someone or something) in a specified way — usually used as (be) accounted Their first project was accounted [=considered] a success.
account for [phrasal verb]

1 account for (something) a : to give a reason or explanation for (something)
Eventually, you will need to account for your actions/behavior. How do you account for [=explain] your success? The informal saying there’s no accounting for taste means that there is no way to understand why some people like something while other people do not.
I don’t see why they liked the movie, but there’s no accounting for taste.

b : to be the cause of (something)
The disease accounted for over 10,000 deaths last year. These new features account for the computer’s higher price. The disease cannot be accounted for [=explained] by genetics alone. There must be other causes as well.
c : to make up or form (a part of something)
Women account for [=constitute, compose] only 25 percent of our employees.
d US : to think about (something) before doing something : to take (something) into consideration
The researchers failed to account for the fact that most of the students were poor.


2 account for (someone or something) a : to show what happened to (someone or something)
We have to account for the time [=to say how much time] we spend on each activity. I’ll have to account for the money I spent. : to know the location of (someone or something) The government couldn’t account for millions of dollars of the taxpayers’ money. Is everyone accounted for? [=do we know where everyone is?] All present and accounted for. [=everyone who is supposed to be here is here]
b : to destroy or kill (someone or something)
Enemy fighters have accounted for most of our bombers, Sir. ; also chiefly Brit : to defeat or beat (someone or something)
We accounted for [=dispatched] the challengers 3–2.

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