Publicaciones de la categoría: LOS 100 VERBOS MAS USADOS EN INGLES

THE 100 MOST USED VERBS IN ENGLISH

accept
allow
ask
believe
borrow
break
bring
buy
can/be able
cancel
change
clean
comb
complain
cough
count
cut
dance
draw
drink
drive
eat
explain
fall
fill
find
finish
fit
fix
fly
forget
give
go
have
hear
hurt
know
learn
leave
listen
live
look
lose
make/do
need
open

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close/shut
organize
pay
play
put
rain
read
reply
run
say
see
sell
send
sign
sing
sit
sleep
smoke
speak
spell
spend
stand
start/begin
study
succeed
swim
take
talk
teach
tell
think
translate
travel
try
turn off
turn on
type
understand
use
wait
wake up
want
watch
work
worry
write
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Infinitive Simple Past Past Participle Spanish
answer answered answered responder
arrive arrived arrived llegar
ask asked asked preguntar
be i was / were been ser
borrow borrowed borrowed tomar prestado
break i broke broken romper
buy i bought bought comprar
catch i caught caught atrapar
clean cleaned cleaned limpiar
climb climbed climbed escalar
collect collected collected colleccionar
come i came come venir
compose composed composed componer
cook cooked cooked cocinar
cut i cut cut cortar
dance danced danced bailar
describe described described describir
discover discovered discovered descubrir
do i did done hacer
drink i drank drunk beber
drive i drove driven conducir
eat i ate eaten comer
enjoy enjoyed enjoyed disfrutar
fall i fell fallen caer
feel i felt felt sentir
find i found found encontrar
fly i flew flown volar
forget i forgot forgotten olvidar
give i gave given dar
go i went gone ir
happen happened happened suceder
have i had had tener
help helped helped ayudar
hurt i hurt hurt herir, doler
invent invented invented inventar
invite invited invited invitar
kill killed killed matar
know i knew known saber
lend i lent lent prestar
leave i left left dejar
lie i lay lain yacer
like liked liked gustar
live lived lived vivir
look looked looked mirar
love loved loved amar
make i made made hacer
meet i met met conocer, encontrar
miss missed missed perder, extrañar
open opened opened abrir
pack packed packed empacar
pay i paid paid pagar
phone phoned phoned llamar por teléfono
play played played jugar
prefer preferred preferred preferir
prepare prepared prepared preparar
push pushed pushed empujar
put i put put poner
rain rained rained llover
read i read read leer
remember remembered remembered recordar
rent rented rented alquilar
rescue rescued rescued rescatar
return returned returned volver, devolver
ring i rang rung llamar por teléfono
save saved saved ahorrar
say i said said decir
search searched searched buscar
see i saw seen ver
sell i sold sold vender
sit i sat sat sentarse
skate skated skated patinar
ski skied skied esquiar
sleep i slept slept dormir
smell smelled smelled oler
speak i spoke spoken hablar
spend i spent spent gastar
start started started comenzar
stay stayed stayed quedarse
stop stopped stopped detener
study studied studied estudiar
survive survived survived sobrevivir
swim i swam swum nadar
take i took taken tomar
talk talked talked hablar
teach i taught taught enseñar
tell i told told decir
think i thought thought pensar
throw i threw thrown lanzar
touch touched touched tocar
try tried tried intentar
understand i understood understood entender
use used used usar
visit visited visited visitar
wait waited waited esperar
walk walked walked caminar
want wanted wanted querer
wash washed washed lavar
watch watched watched mirar
wear i wore worn llevar puesto
work worked worked trabajar
write i wrote written escribir

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Infinitive Simple Past Past Participle Spanish
add added added agregar
answer answered answered responder
apologise apologised apologised disculparse
arrest arrested arrested arrestar
arrive arrived arrived llegar
ask asked asked preguntar
attack attacked attacked atacar
be i was / were been ser
become i became become convertirse
begin i began begun comenzar
believe believed believed creer
boil boiled boiled hervir
book booked booked reservar
borrow borrowed borrowed tomar prestado
break i broke broken romper
bring i brought brought traer
build i built built construir
buy i bought bought comprar
catch i caught caught atrapar
carry carried carried llevar
change changed changed cambiar
chop chopped chopped picar
clean cleaned cleaned limpiar
climb climbed climbed escalar
collect collected collected colleccionar
come i came come venir
compose composed composed componer
cook cooked cooked cocinar
copy copied copied copiar
cut i cut cut cortar
dance danced danced bailar
describe described described describir
destroy destroyed destroyed destruir
die died died morir
discover discovered discovered descubrir
discuss discussed discussed discutir
do i did done hacer
draw i drew drawn dibujar
dream i dreamt/dreamed dreamt/dreamed soñar
drink i drank drunk beber
drive i drove driven conducir
dye dyed dyed teñir
eat i ate eaten comer
enjoy enjoyed enjoyed disfrutar
explode exploded exploded explotar
extinguish extinguished extinguished extinguirse
fall i fell fallen caer
feed i fed fed alimentar
feel i felt felt sentir
fight i fought fought pelear
find i found found encontrar
fly i flew flown volar
forget i forgot forgotten olvidar
freeze i froze frozen congelar
fry fried fried freír
give i gave given dar
go i went gone ir
grow i grew grown crecer
happen happened happened suceder
hate hated hated odiar
have i had had tener
hear i heard heard oír
help helped helped ayudar
hire hired hired alquilar
hope hoped hoped esperar
hunt hunted hunted cazar
hurt i hurt hurt herir, doler
imagine imagined imagined imaginar
invent invented invented inventar
invite invited invited invitar
jump jumped jumped saltar
keep i kept kept guardar
kill killed killed matar
know i knew known saber
leave i left left dejar
lend i lent lent prestar
lie i lay lain yacer
lie lied lied mentir
lift lifted lifted levantar
like liked liked gustar
listen listened listened escuchar
live lived lived vivir
look looked looked mirar
lose i lost lost perder
love loved loved amar
make i made made hacer
meet i met met conocer, encontrar
miss missed missed perder, extrañar
offer offered offered ofrecer
open opened opened abrir
pack packed packed empacar
pass passed passed pasar, aprobar
pay i paid paid pagar
peel peeled peeled pelar
phone phoned phoned llamar por teléfono
plan planned planned planificar
play played played jugar
pour poured poured verter
prefer preferred preferred preferir
prepare prepared prepared preparar
push pushed pushed empujar
put i put put poner
rain rained rained llover
read i read read leer
reduce reduced reduced reducir
remember remembered remembered recordar
rent rented rented alquilar
rescue rescued rescued rescatar
return returned returned volver, devolver
ring i rang rung llamar por teléfono
run i ran run correr
save saved saved ahorrar
say i said said decir
search searched searched buscar
send i sent sent enviar
scream screamed screamed gritar
see i saw seen ver
sell i sold sold vender
shine i shone shone brillar
shoot i shot shot disparar
shut i shut shut cerrar
sing i sang sung cantar
sit i sat sat sentarse
skate skated skated patinar
ski skied skied esquiar
sleep i slept slept dormir
smell smelled smelled oler
snore snored snored roncar
speak i spoke spoken hablar
spend i spent spent gastar
start started started comenzar
stay stayed stayed quedarse
steal i stole stolen robar
stop stopped stopped detener
study studied studied estudiar
survive survived survived sobrevivir
swim i swam swum nadar
take i took taken tomar
talk talked talked hablar
teach i taught taught enseñar
tell i told told decir
thank thanked thanked agradecer
think i thought thought pensar
throw i threw thrown lanzar
touch touched touched tocar
try tried tried intentar
use used used usar
understand i understood understood entender
visit visited visited visitar
wait waited waited esperar
walk walked walked caminar
want wanted wanted querer
warn warned warned advertir
wash washed washed lavar
watch watched watched mirar
wear i wore worn llevar puesto
win i won won ganar
work worked worked trabajar
write i wrote written escribir

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Verbos modales

Los verbos modales realizan una función similar a la de los verbos
auxiliares. Dan información adicional sobre el verbo que los sigue y se
utilizan para indicar posibilidad, probabilidad, certeza, deducción,
capacidad, consejo, obligación, prohibición, permiso, hacer peticiones,
ofrecimientos, sugerencias, etc.

Son verbos modales: can, could, may, might, must, ought to, shall,
should, will y would.

Los verbos modales tienen algunas características que los diferencian de los verbos normales:
1. Los modales van seguidos siempre de un verbo en infinitivo:

She must leave in a few minutes.
I think it will look rather nice.
Things might have been so different.
People may be watching.
She ought to go straight back to England.
My sister can’t drive yet.
You could be right.
Shall we go out for a meal tonight?
You should study harder.
Would you finish this for me?

2. Los modales sólo tienen una forma. No añaden ‘-s’ a la tercera
persona del singular del presente y no tienen formas acabadas en ‘-
ing’ o en ‘-ed’. Tampoco tienen infinitivo.

There’s nothing I can do about it.
I’m sure he can do it.
2

3. Los verbos modales no necesitan el auxiliar DO para la forma
negativa ni para las preguntas. Para la forma negativa de un modal
simplemente añadimos NOT o una palabra negativa inmediatamente
detrás del modal.

You must not worry.
I can never remember his name.
‘Can + not’ se escribe siembre como una palabra, ‘cannot’.
I cannot go back. = I can’t go back.

En inglés hablado o escrito informal ‘not’ se contrae en ‘-n’t’ y se
añade al modal:

could not -> couldn’t We couldn’t leave the farm.
should not -> shouldn’t You shouldn’t talk like that.
must not -> mustn’t You mustn’t talk about Ron like that.
would not -> wouldn’t I wouldn’t do it if I were you.

Las siguientes formas contractas son irregulares:

shall not -> shan’t I shan’t let you go.

will not -> won’t Won’t you change your mind?

cannot -> can’t We can’t stop now.

‘Might not’ y ‘ought not’ se contraen a veces en ‘mightn’t’ y

‘oughtn’t’. Sin embargo, es muy raro que ‘may not’ aparezca como
‘mayn’t’ en inglés moderno.

Para hacer una pregunta, se pone el modal delante del sujeto.

Could you give me an example?
Will you be coming in later?
Shall I shut the door?

4. La mayoría de los verbos modales no se pueden utilizar en tiempos
de pasado o futuro. Por ejemplo, no podemos decir

*She will can come with me.

Tampoco es correcto *We musted study a lot.

Cuando nos referimos al pasado, utilizamos un modal seguido de ‘have’ y un
participio pasado:

They may have seen the film – Puede que hayan visto la película

5. Los modales no indican normalmente el tiempo en que ocurre
algo. Sin embargo, ‘shall’ y ‘will’ indican a menudo un hecho o una
situación futura.

I shall do what you suggested.
He will not return for many hours.

6. En inglés hablado y en inglés escrito informal, ‘shall’ y ‘will’ se
utilizan en forma contracta como ‘ll. ‘Would’ se contrae en ‘d.

I’ll see you tomorrow.
I hope you’ll agree.
Mary said she’d love to stay.

‘Shall’, ‘will’ y ‘would’ no se contraen cuando van al final de una
oración.
Paul said he would come, and I hope he will.

ATENCIÓN: La forma contracta del auxiliar ‘had’ es también ‘d.

I’d heard it many times. = I had heard it many times.

7. ‘Could’ se utiliza como pasado de ‘can’ para expresar habilidad.
‘Would’ se utiliza en estilo indirecto como reporting verb de ‘will’
para expresar futuro.

When I was young, I could run for miles.
I will see my mother tomorrow
–> He said that he would see his mother the next day.

8. Nunca se usan dos modales juntos. Por ejemplo, no se puede decir
*”He will can come”. En su lugar se puede utilizar BE ABLE TO:

“He will be able to come”.

De la misma forma, tampoco podemos decir *”I will must go”. Pero
podemos utilizar HAVE TO:

“I will have to go”.

9. Los modales se pueden utilizar en question tags :

You won’t tell her, will you?
She can drive, can’t she?

Prohibición / Obligación / Ausencia de obligación / Permiso
Prohibición Obligación Ausencia de obligación Permiso

mustn’t
You mustn’t run in the corridor

must
You must be here on time

needn’t
You needn’t come tomorrow

can
You can use your book

can’t
You can’t use your dictionary in the exam

have (got) to
You have to wear a uniform
You’ve got to be quiet.

don’t have to
You don’t have to buy it

may
May I use your car?

may not
You may not use your mobile phone here

should
You should bring your book

haven’t got to
I haven’t got to do any homework

could
Could I take another biscuit?

shall not
You shall not leave without permission

ought to
It’s very cold. You ought to take a coat

didn’t need to
I didn’t need to take the bus because it was just across the road.

needn’t have +past participle
You needn’t have come (You came although it wasn’t necessary)

5
Habilidad o capacidad / Posibilidad o probabilidad / Certeza
/ Deducciones Habilidad o Capacidad Posibilidad o probabilidad Certeza Deducciones

can
I can speak French

can
The temperature in Jaén can reach 40ºC in July

will
Most of you will have heard of this.

must
You must be Tom’s father.

could
When I was younger I could play tennis quite well.

could
They could be friends

would
You would agree that changes

must be done
can’t
She can’t have left the party.

be able to
- I’ll be able to finish it on time.
- We were able to talk to the headteacher. (We actually talked to her)

may
It may rain

should
She should be sad living in Great Britain

must have + past participle
She must have forgotten

might
It might be true

shall
We shall be leaving as soon as we are ready.

can’t have + past participle
She can’t have finished yet

may have + past participle
She may have forgotten it

must have + past participle
I must have left my credit card in the bookshop (I’m sure I did)

might have + past participle
They might have arrived

could have + past participle
He could have killed her

6
Peticiones / Ofrecimientos / Sugerencias y consejos / Deseos
Peticiones Ofrecimientos Sugerencias y consejos Deseos

can
Can you help me?

can
Can I help you?

should
You should ask your teacher

would
I would like to know the answer.

could
Could I interrupt you?

may
May I help you?

ought to
She ought to be more careful

would rather
I would rather have left

will
Will you open the window, please?

shall
Shall I close the door?

could
We could go to the cinema.

would sooner
I’d sooner walk than go by bus

would you mind if
Would you mind If I used your car?

will
Will you have a cup of tea?

should have + past participle
She ought to have finished it.

would you mind + V-ing
Would you mind bringing some bread?

would
Would you like a drink?

shall
Shall we meet outside the bank?

should
Should I phone for a taxi for you?

can
You can take a taxi if you are tired

might
You might like to come with us

had better
You’d better leave now (we might have a quarrel)

http://webs.ono.com/lallena/ModalVerbs.html

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Abbreviation Abreviatura, Abreviación
Abdication Abdicación
Acclamation Aclamación
Accumulation Acumulación
Administration Administración
Admiration Admiración
Adoration Adoración
Affirmation Afirmación
Agglomeration Aglomeración
Agitation Agitación
Allegation Alegación
Animation Animación
Anticipation Anticipación
Application Aplicación
Assassination *Asesinato
Assimilation Asimilación
Association Asociación
Authentication Autenticación
Authorization Autorización
Automation Automatización
Aviation Aviación
Celebration Celebración
Cessation Cesación
Circulation Circulación
Civilization Civilización
Classification Clasificación
Collaboration Colaboración
Combination Combinación
Commemoration Conmemoración
Commendation Recomendación
Communication Comunicación
Compensation Compensación
Compilation Compilación
Concentration Concentración
Condemnation Condenación
Condensation Condensación
Confirmation Confirmación
Confiscation Confiscación
Confrontation **Enfrentamiento
Congratulation Feliciatión
Congregation Congregación
Consideration Consideración
Consolation *Consuelo
Constellation Constelación
Consternation Consternación
Consultation Consultación
Contamination Contaminación
Contemplation Contemplación
Continuation Continuación
Conversation Conversación
Cooperation Cooperación
Coronation Coronación
Corporation Corporación
Correlation Correlación
Corroboration Corroboración
Creation Creación
Cultivation Cultivo*
Declaration Declaración
Degeneration Degeneración
Degradation Degradación
Delegation Delegación
Deliberation Deliberación
Delineation Delineación
Demonstration Demostración Manifestación (protest)
Deregulation Dereglamentación
Derivation Derivación
Derogation Detracción
Desecration Desecration
Desegregation Desegregation
Desolation Desolación
Destination Destino
Determination Determinación
Detestation *Aborrecimiento
Detonation Detonación
Dictation *Dictado
Differentiation Differentiation
Discrimination Discriminación
Disputation *disputa
Dissemination Diseminación
Documentation Documentación
Domestication Domestication
Domination Dominación
Donation Donación
Duration Duración
Education Educación
Ejaculation Eyaculación
Elaboration Elaboración
Elevation Elevación
Elimination Eliminación
Emancipation Emancipación
Emulation Emulación
Equation Ecuación
Evacuation Evacuación
Exaggeration Exageración
Examination *Examen
Exclamation Exclamación
Excommunication *Excomunión
Expectation *Expectativa
Experimentation Experimentación
Explanation Explicación
Exploration Exploración
Expostulation Expostulation
Extermination Exterminio
Exultation Exultation
Facilitation Facilitación
Fascination Fascinación
Federation Confederación
Fermentation Fermentación
Formation Formación
Formulation Fórmulación
Foundation Fundación
Generation Generación
Germination Germinación
Gratification Gratificación
Gravitation Gravitación
Hallucination *Alucinación
Hesitation Vacilación
Hibernation Hibernación
Humiliation Humillación
Identification Identificación
Illumination Iluminación
Illustration Ilustración
Imagination Imaginación
Imitation Imitación
Immigration Inmigración
Implication Implicación
Inclination Inclinación
Indentation Indentación
Indication Indicación
Indignation Indignación
Information Información
Initiation Iniciación
Innovation Innovación
Inoculation Inoculación
Insinuation Insinuación
Inspiration Inspiración
Installation Instalación
Instigation Provocación
Interpretation Interpretación
Intimation Intimación
Intonation Entonación
Inundation Inundación
Investigation Investigación (research)
Invitation Invitación
Invocation Invocación
Isolation Aislamiento
Justification Justificación
Lamentation Lamentación
Legislation Legislación
Limitation Limitación
Litigation Litigación
Location Ubicación
Maceration Maceración
Machination Maquinación
Manifestation Manifestación
Manipulation Manipulación
Mastication Masticación
Materialization Materialización
Meditation Mediación
Mineralisation Mineralisation
Moderation Moderación
Modification Modificación
Mutilation Mutilación
Narration Narración
Nation Nación
Naturalization Naturalización
Obligation Obligación
Observation Observación
Occupation Ocupación
Operation Operación
Organization Organización
Orientation Orientación
Ovation Ovación
Overpopulation *Superpoblación
Participation Participación
Penetration Penetración
Perspiration *Transpiración
Perturbation Perturbación
Population *Población
Precipitation Precipitación
Predestination Predestinación
Premeditation Premeditación
Preparation Preparación
Presentation Presentación
Preservation **Conservación
Privation Privación
Proliferation Proliferación
Prolongation Prolongación
Pronunciation Pronunciación
Propagation Propagación
Provocation Provocación
Publication Publicación
Punctuation Puntuación
Qualification **Cualificación
Realization Realización
Recitation Recitación
Reconciliation Conciliación
Recreation Recreación
Rectification Rectificación
Registration Inscripción
Regulation Regulación
Rehabilitation Rehabilitación
Relation Relación
Renunciation Renunciación
Reorganization Reorganización
Representation Representación
Reprobation Reprobation
Reputation Reputación
Respiration Respiración
Restoration Restauración
Retaliation Retaliación Represalia
Revelation Revelación
Salutation Salutación
Salvation Salvación
Segregation Segregación
Sensation Sensación
Separation Separación
Signification Significación
Simulation Simulación
Situation Situación
Sophistication Sofisticación
Speculation Especulación
Stagnation *Estancación Estancamiento
Starvation **Inanición
Station Estación
Stipulation Estipulación
Temptation *Tentación
Toleration Tolerancia
Transfiguration Transfiguración
Transformation Transformación
Translation *Traducción
Transportation Transportación
Tribulation Tribulación
Trituration Trituration
Vacation Vacación
Vegetation Vegetación
Veneration Veneración
Ventilation Ventilación
Verification Verificación
Violation Violación (usually means rape in Spanish)
Vocation Vocación

THE 100 MOST USED VERBS IN ENGLISH

accept
allow
ask
believe
borrow
break
bring
buy
can/be able
cancel
change
clean
comb
complain
cough
count
cut
dance
draw
drink
drive
eat
explain
fall
fill
find
finish
fit
fix
fly
forget
give
go
have
hear
hurt
know
learn
leave
listen
live
look
lose
make/do
need
open

________________________________________________________________________

close/shut
organize
pay
play
put
rain
read
reply
run
say
see
sell
send
sign
sing
sit
sleep
smoke
speak
spell
spend
stand
start/begin
study
succeed
swim
take
talk
teach
tell
think
translate
travel
try
turn off
turn on
type
understand
use
wait
wake up
want
watch
work
worry
write
_____________________________________________________
Infinitive Simple Past Past Participle Spanish
answer answered answered responder
arrive arrived arrived llegar
ask asked asked preguntar
be i was / were been ser
borrow borrowed borrowed tomar prestado
break i broke broken romper
buy i bought bought comprar
catch i caught caught atrapar
clean cleaned cleaned limpiar
climb climbed climbed escalar
collect collected collected colleccionar
come i came come venir
compose composed composed componer
cook cooked cooked cocinar
cut i cut cut cortar
dance danced danced bailar
describe described described describir
discover discovered discovered descubrir
do i did done hacer
drink i drank drunk beber
drive i drove driven conducir
eat i ate eaten comer
enjoy enjoyed enjoyed disfrutar
fall i fell fallen caer
feel i felt felt sentir
find i found found encontrar
fly i flew flown volar
forget i forgot forgotten olvidar
give i gave given dar
go i went gone ir
happen happened happened suceder
have i had had tener
help helped helped ayudar
hurt i hurt hurt herir, doler
invent invented invented inventar
invite invited invited invitar
kill killed killed matar
know i knew known saber
lend i lent lent prestar
leave i left left dejar
lie i lay lain yacer
like liked liked gustar
live lived lived vivir
look looked looked mirar
love loved loved amar
make i made made hacer
meet i met met conocer, encontrar
miss missed missed perder, extrañar
open opened opened abrir
pack packed packed empacar
pay i paid paid pagar
phone phoned phoned llamar por teléfono
play played played jugar
prefer preferred preferred preferir
prepare prepared prepared preparar
push pushed pushed empujar
put i put put poner
rain rained rained llover
read i read read leer
remember remembered remembered recordar
rent rented rented alquilar
rescue rescued rescued rescatar
return returned returned volver, devolver
ring i rang rung llamar por teléfono
save saved saved ahorrar
say i said said decir
search searched searched buscar
see i saw seen ver
sell i sold sold vender
sit i sat sat sentarse
skate skated skated patinar
ski skied skied esquiar
sleep i slept slept dormir
smell smelled smelled oler
speak i spoke spoken hablar
spend i spent spent gastar
start started started comenzar
stay stayed stayed quedarse
stop stopped stopped detener
study studied studied estudiar
survive survived survived sobrevivir
swim i swam swum nadar
take i took taken tomar
talk talked talked hablar
teach i taught taught enseñar
tell i told told decir
think i thought thought pensar
throw i threw thrown lanzar
touch touched touched tocar
try tried tried intentar
understand i understood understood entender
use used used usar
visit visited visited visitar
wait waited waited esperar
walk walked walked caminar
want wanted wanted querer
wash washed washed lavar
watch watched watched mirar
wear i wore worn llevar puesto
work worked worked trabajar
write i wrote written escribir

_________________________________________________________________________

Infinitive Simple Past Past Participle Spanish
add added added agregar
answer answered answered responder
apologise apologised apologised disculparse
arrest arrested arrested arrestar
arrive arrived arrived llegar
ask asked asked preguntar
attack attacked attacked atacar
be i was / were been ser
become i became become convertirse
begin i began begun comenzar
believe believed believed creer
boil boiled boiled hervir
book booked booked reservar
borrow borrowed borrowed tomar prestado
break i broke broken romper
bring i brought brought traer
build i built built construir
buy i bought bought comprar
catch i caught caught atrapar
carry carried carried llevar
change changed changed cambiar
chop chopped chopped picar
clean cleaned cleaned limpiar
climb climbed climbed escalar
collect collected collected colleccionar
come i came come venir
compose composed composed componer
cook cooked cooked cocinar
copy copied copied copiar
cut i cut cut cortar
dance danced danced bailar
describe described described describir
destroy destroyed destroyed destruir
die died died morir
discover discovered discovered descubrir
discuss discussed discussed discutir
do i did done hacer
draw i drew drawn dibujar
dream i dreamt/dreamed dreamt/dreamed soñar
drink i drank drunk beber
drive i drove driven conducir
dye dyed dyed teñir
eat i ate eaten comer
enjoy enjoyed enjoyed disfrutar
explode exploded exploded explotar
extinguish extinguished extinguished extinguirse
fall i fell fallen caer
feed i fed fed alimentar
feel i felt felt sentir
fight i fought fought pelear
find i found found encontrar
fly i flew flown volar
forget i forgot forgotten olvidar
freeze i froze frozen congelar
fry fried fried freír
give i gave given dar
go i went gone ir
grow i grew grown crecer
happen happened happened suceder
hate hated hated odiar
have i had had tener
hear i heard heard oír
help helped helped ayudar
hire hired hired alquilar
hope hoped hoped esperar
hunt hunted hunted cazar
hurt i hurt hurt herir, doler
imagine imagined imagined imaginar
invent invented invented inventar
invite invited invited invitar
jump jumped jumped saltar
keep i kept kept guardar
kill killed killed matar
know i knew known saber
leave i left left dejar
lend i lent lent prestar
lie i lay lain yacer
lie lied lied mentir
lift lifted lifted levantar
like liked liked gustar
listen listened listened escuchar
live lived lived vivir
look looked looked mirar
lose i lost lost perder
love loved loved amar
make i made made hacer
meet i met met conocer, encontrar
miss missed missed perder, extrañar
offer offered offered ofrecer
open opened opened abrir
pack packed packed empacar
pass passed passed pasar, aprobar
pay i paid paid pagar
peel peeled peeled pelar
phone phoned phoned llamar por teléfono
plan planned planned planificar
play played played jugar
pour poured poured verter
prefer preferred preferred preferir
prepare prepared prepared preparar
push pushed pushed empujar
put i put put poner
rain rained rained llover
read i read read leer
reduce reduced reduced reducir
remember remembered remembered recordar
rent rented rented alquilar
rescue rescued rescued rescatar
return returned returned volver, devolver
ring i rang rung llamar por teléfono
run i ran run correr
save saved saved ahorrar
say i said said decir
search searched searched buscar
send i sent sent enviar
scream screamed screamed gritar
see i saw seen ver
sell i sold sold vender
shine i shone shone brillar
shoot i shot shot disparar
shut i shut shut cerrar
sing i sang sung cantar
sit i sat sat sentarse
skate skated skated patinar
ski skied skied esquiar
sleep i slept slept dormir
smell smelled smelled oler
snore snored snored roncar
speak i spoke spoken hablar
spend i spent spent gastar
start started started comenzar
stay stayed stayed quedarse
steal i stole stolen robar
stop stopped stopped detener
study studied studied estudiar
survive survived survived sobrevivir
swim i swam swum nadar
take i took taken tomar
talk talked talked hablar
teach i taught taught enseñar
tell i told told decir
thank thanked thanked agradecer
think i thought thought pensar
throw i threw thrown lanzar
touch touched touched tocar
try tried tried intentar
use used used usar
understand i understood understood entender
visit visited visited visitar
wait waited waited esperar
walk walked walked caminar
want wanted wanted querer
warn warned warned advertir
wash washed washed lavar
watch watched watched mirar
wear i wore worn llevar puesto
win i won won ganar
work worked worked trabajar
write i wrote written escribir

_____________________________________________________________

Verbos modales

Los verbos modales realizan una función similar a la de los verbos
auxiliares. Dan información adicional sobre el verbo que los sigue y se
utilizan para indicar posibilidad, probabilidad, certeza, deducción,
capacidad, consejo, obligación, prohibición, permiso, hacer peticiones,
ofrecimientos, sugerencias, etc.

Son verbos modales: can, could, may, might, must, ought to, shall,
should, will y would.

Los verbos modales tienen algunas características que los diferencian de los verbos normales:
1. Los modales van seguidos siempre de un verbo en infinitivo:

She must leave in a few minutes.
I think it will look rather nice.
Things might have been so different.
People may be watching.
She ought to go straight back to England.
My sister can’t drive yet.
You could be right.
Shall we go out for a meal tonight?
You should study harder.
Would you finish this for me?

2. Los modales sólo tienen una forma. No añaden ‘-s’ a la tercera
persona del singular del presente y no tienen formas acabadas en ‘-
ing’ o en ‘-ed’. Tampoco tienen infinitivo.

There’s nothing I can do about it.
I’m sure he can do it.
2

3. Los verbos modales no necesitan el auxiliar DO para la forma
negativa ni para las preguntas. Para la forma negativa de un modal
simplemente añadimos NOT o una palabra negativa inmediatamente
detrás del modal.

You must not worry.
I can never remember his name.
‘Can + not’ se escribe siembre como una palabra, ‘cannot’.
I cannot go back. = I can’t go back.

En inglés hablado o escrito informal ‘not’ se contrae en ‘-n’t’ y se
añade al modal:

could not -> couldn’t We couldn’t leave the farm.
should not -> shouldn’t You shouldn’t talk like that.
must not -> mustn’t You mustn’t talk about Ron like that.
would not -> wouldn’t I wouldn’t do it if I were you.

Las siguientes formas contractas son irregulares:

shall not -> shan’t I shan’t let you go.

will not -> won’t Won’t you change your mind?

cannot -> can’t We can’t stop now.

‘Might not’ y ‘ought not’ se contraen a veces en ‘mightn’t’ y

‘oughtn’t’. Sin embargo, es muy raro que ‘may not’ aparezca como
‘mayn’t’ en inglés moderno.

Para hacer una pregunta, se pone el modal delante del sujeto.

Could you give me an example?
Will you be coming in later?
Shall I shut the door?

4. La mayoría de los verbos modales no se pueden utilizar en tiempos
de pasado o futuro. Por ejemplo, no podemos decir

*She will can come with me.

Tampoco es correcto *We musted study a lot.

Cuando nos referimos al pasado, utilizamos un modal seguido de ‘have’ y un
participio pasado:

They may have seen the film – Puede que hayan visto la película

5. Los modales no indican normalmente el tiempo en que ocurre
algo. Sin embargo, ‘shall’ y ‘will’ indican a menudo un hecho o una
situación futura.

I shall do what you suggested.
He will not return for many hours.

6. En inglés hablado y en inglés escrito informal, ‘shall’ y ‘will’ se
utilizan en forma contracta como ‘ll. ‘Would’ se contrae en ‘d.

I’ll see you tomorrow.
I hope you’ll agree.
Mary said she’d love to stay.

‘Shall’, ‘will’ y ‘would’ no se contraen cuando van al final de una
oración.
Paul said he would come, and I hope he will.

ATENCIÓN: La forma contracta del auxiliar ‘had’ es también ‘d.

I’d heard it many times. = I had heard it many times.

7. ‘Could’ se utiliza como pasado de ‘can’ para expresar habilidad.
‘Would’ se utiliza en estilo indirecto como reporting verb de ‘will’
para expresar futuro.

When I was young, I could run for miles.
I will see my mother tomorrow
–> He said that he would see his mother the next day.

8. Nunca se usan dos modales juntos. Por ejemplo, no se puede decir
*”He will can come”. En su lugar se puede utilizar BE ABLE TO:

“He will be able to come”.

De la misma forma, tampoco podemos decir *”I will must go”. Pero
podemos utilizar HAVE TO:

“I will have to go”.

9. Los modales se pueden utilizar en question tags :

You won’t tell her, will you?
She can drive, can’t she?

Prohibición / Obligación / Ausencia de obligación / Permiso
Prohibición Obligación Ausencia de obligación Permiso

mustn’t
You mustn’t run in the corridor

must
You must be here on time

needn’t
You needn’t come tomorrow

can
You can use your book

can’t
You can’t use your dictionary in the exam

have (got) to
You have to wear a uniform
You’ve got to be quiet.

don’t have to
You don’t have to buy it

may
May I use your car?

may not
You may not use your mobile phone here

should
You should bring your book

haven’t got to
I haven’t got to do any homework

could
Could I take another biscuit?

shall not
You shall not leave without permission

ought to
It’s very cold. You ought to take a coat

didn’t need to
I didn’t need to take the bus because it was just across the road.

needn’t have +past participle
You needn’t have come (You came although it wasn’t necessary)

5
Habilidad o capacidad / Posibilidad o probabilidad / Certeza
/ Deducciones Habilidad o Capacidad Posibilidad o probabilidad Certeza Deducciones

can
I can speak French

can
The temperature in Jaén can reach 40ºC in July

will
Most of you will have heard of this.

must
You must be Tom’s father.

could
When I was younger I could play tennis quite well.

could
They could be friends

would
You would agree that changes

must be done
can’t
She can’t have left the party.

be able to
- I’ll be able to finish it on time.
- We were able to talk to the headteacher. (We actually talked to her)

may
It may rain

should
She should be sad living in Great Britain

must have + past participle
She must have forgotten

might
It might be true

shall
We shall be leaving as soon as we are ready.

can’t have + past participle
She can’t have finished yet

may have + past participle
She may have forgotten it

must have + past participle
I must have left my credit card in the bookshop (I’m sure I did)

might have + past participle
They might have arrived

could have + past participle
He could have killed her

6
Peticiones / Ofrecimientos / Sugerencias y consejos / Deseos
Peticiones Ofrecimientos Sugerencias y consejos Deseos

can
Can you help me?

can
Can I help you?

should
You should ask your teacher

would
I would like to know the answer.

could
Could I interrupt you?

may
May I help you?

ought to
She ought to be more careful

would rather
I would rather have left

will
Will you open the window, please?

shall
Shall I close the door?

could
We could go to the cinema.

would sooner
I’d sooner walk than go by bus

would you mind if
Would you mind If I used your car?

will
Will you have a cup of tea?

should have + past participle
She ought to have finished it.

would you mind + V-ing
Would you mind bringing some bread?

would
Would you like a drink?

shall
Shall we meet outside the bank?

should
Should I phone for a taxi for you?

can
You can take a taxi if you are tired

might
You might like to come with us

had better
You’d better leave now (we might have a quarrel)

http://webs.ono.com/lallena/ModalVerbs.html

_____________________________________________________________

Abbreviation Abreviatura, Abreviación
Abdication Abdicación
Acclamation Aclamación
Accumulation Acumulación
Administration Administración
Admiration Admiración
Adoration Adoración
Affirmation Afirmación
Agglomeration Aglomeración
Agitation Agitación
Allegation Alegación
Animation Animación
Anticipation Anticipación
Application Aplicación
Assassination *Asesinato
Assimilation Asimilación
Association Asociación
Authentication Autenticación
Authorization Autorización
Automation Automatización
Aviation Aviación
Celebration Celebración
Cessation Cesación
Circulation Circulación
Civilization Civilización
Classification Clasificación
Collaboration Colaboración
Combination Combinación
Commemoration Conmemoración
Commendation Recomendación
Communication Comunicación
Compensation Compensación
Compilation Compilación
Concentration Concentración
Condemnation Condenación
Condensation Condensación
Confirmation Confirmación
Confiscation Confiscación
Confrontation **Enfrentamiento
Congratulation Feliciatión
Congregation Congregación
Consideration Consideración
Consolation *Consuelo
Constellation Constelación
Consternation Consternación
Consultation Consultación
Contamination Contaminación
Contemplation Contemplación
Continuation Continuación
Conversation Conversación
Cooperation Cooperación
Coronation Coronación
Corporation Corporación
Correlation Correlación
Corroboration Corroboración
Creation Creación
Cultivation Cultivo*
Declaration Declaración
Degeneration Degeneración
Degradation Degradación
Delegation Delegación
Deliberation Deliberación
Delineation Delineación
Demonstration Demostración Manifestación (protest)
Deregulation Dereglamentación
Derivation Derivación
Derogation Detracción
Desecration Desecration
Desegregation Desegregation
Desolation Desolación
Destination Destino
Determination Determinación
Detestation *Aborrecimiento
Detonation Detonación
Dictation *Dictado
Differentiation Differentiation
Discrimination Discriminación
Disputation *disputa
Dissemination Diseminación
Documentation Documentación
Domestication Domestication
Domination Dominación
Donation Donación
Duration Duración
Education Educación
Ejaculation Eyaculación
Elaboration Elaboración
Elevation Elevación
Elimination Eliminación
Emancipation Emancipación
Emulation Emulación
Equation Ecuación
Evacuation Evacuación
Exaggeration Exageración
Examination *Examen
Exclamation Exclamación
Excommunication *Excomunión
Expectation *Expectativa
Experimentation Experimentación
Explanation Explicación
Exploration Exploración
Expostulation Expostulation
Extermination Exterminio
Exultation Exultation
Facilitation Facilitación
Fascination Fascinación
Federation Confederación
Fermentation Fermentación
Formation Formación
Formulation Fórmulación
Foundation Fundación
Generation Generación
Germination Germinación
Gratification Gratificación
Gravitation Gravitación
Hallucination *Alucinación
Hesitation Vacilación
Hibernation Hibernación
Humiliation Humillación
Identification Identificación
Illumination Iluminación
Illustration Ilustración
Imagination Imaginación
Imitation Imitación
Immigration Inmigración
Implication Implicación
Inclination Inclinación
Indentation Indentación
Indication Indicación
Indignation Indignación
Information Información
Initiation Iniciación
Innovation Innovación
Inoculation Inoculación
Insinuation Insinuación
Inspiration Inspiración
Installation Instalación
Instigation Provocación
Interpretation Interpretación
Intimation Intimación
Intonation Entonación
Inundation Inundación
Investigation Investigación (research)
Invitation Invitación
Invocation Invocación
Isolation Aislamiento
Justification Justificación
Lamentation Lamentación
Legislation Legislación
Limitation Limitación
Litigation Litigación
Location Ubicación
Maceration Maceración
Machination Maquinación
Manifestation Manifestación
Manipulation Manipulación
Mastication Masticación
Materialization Materialización
Meditation Mediación
Mineralisation Mineralisation
Moderation Moderación
Modification Modificación
Mutilation Mutilación
Narration Narración
Nation Nación
Naturalization Naturalización
Obligation Obligación
Observation Observación
Occupation Ocupación
Operation Operación
Organization Organización
Orientation Orientación
Ovation Ovación
Overpopulation *Superpoblación
Participation Participación
Penetration Penetración
Perspiration *Transpiración
Perturbation Perturbación
Population *Población
Precipitation Precipitación
Predestination Predestinación
Premeditation Premeditación
Preparation Preparación
Presentation Presentación
Preservation **Conservación
Privation Privación
Proliferation Proliferación
Prolongation Prolongación
Pronunciation Pronunciación
Propagation Propagación
Provocation Provocación
Publication Publicación
Punctuation Puntuación
Qualification **Cualificación
Realization Realización
Recitation Recitación
Reconciliation Conciliación
Recreation Recreación
Rectification Rectificación
Registration Inscripción
Regulation Regulación
Rehabilitation Rehabilitación
Relation Relación
Renunciation Renunciación
Reorganization Reorganización
Representation Representación
Reprobation Reprobation
Reputation Reputación
Respiration Respiración
Restoration Restauración
Retaliation Retaliación Represalia
Revelation Revelación
Salutation Salutación
Salvation Salvación
Segregation Segregación
Sensation Sensación
Separation Separación
Signification Significación
Simulation Simulación
Situation Situación
Sophistication Sofisticación
Speculation Especulación
Stagnation *Estancación Estancamiento
Starvation **Inanición
Station Estación
Stipulation Estipulación
Temptation *Tentación
Toleration Tolerancia
Transfiguration Transfiguración
Transformation Transformación
Translation *Traducción
Transportation Transportación
Tribulation Tribulación
Trituration Trituration
Vacation Vacación
Vegetation Vegetación
Veneration Veneración
Ventilation Ventilación
Verification Verificación
Violation Violación (usually means rape in Spanish)
Vocation Vocación

THE 100 MOST USED VERBS IN ENGLISH

accept
allow
ask
believe
borrow
break
bring
buy
can/be able
cancel
change
clean
comb
complain
cough
count
cut
dance
draw
drink
drive
eat
explain
fall
fill
find
finish
fit
fix
fly
forget
give
go
have
hear
hurt
know
learn
leave
listen
live
look
lose
make/do
need
open

________________________________________________________________________

close/shut
organize
pay
play
put
rain
read
reply
run
say
see
sell
send
sign
sing
sit
sleep
smoke
speak
spell
spend
stand
start/begin
study
succeed
swim
take
talk
teach
tell
think
translate
travel
try
turn off
turn on
type
understand
use
wait
wake up
want
watch
work
worry
write
_____________________________________________________
Infinitive Simple Past Past Participle Spanish
answer answered answered responder
arrive arrived arrived llegar
ask asked asked preguntar
be i was / were been ser
borrow borrowed borrowed tomar prestado
break i broke broken romper
buy i bought bought comprar
catch i caught caught atrapar
clean cleaned cleaned limpiar
climb climbed climbed escalar
collect collected collected colleccionar
come i came come venir
compose composed composed componer
cook cooked cooked cocinar
cut i cut cut cortar
dance danced danced bailar
describe described described describir
discover discovered discovered descubrir
do i did done hacer
drink i drank drunk beber
drive i drove driven conducir
eat i ate eaten comer
enjoy enjoyed enjoyed disfrutar
fall i fell fallen caer
feel i felt felt sentir
find i found found encontrar
fly i flew flown volar
forget i forgot forgotten olvidar
give i gave given dar
go i went gone ir
happen happened happened suceder
have i had had tener
help helped helped ayudar
hurt i hurt hurt herir, doler
invent invented invented inventar
invite invited invited invitar
kill killed killed matar
know i knew known saber
lend i lent lent prestar
leave i left left dejar
lie i lay lain yacer
like liked liked gustar
live lived lived vivir
look looked looked mirar
love loved loved amar
make i made made hacer
meet i met met conocer, encontrar
miss missed missed perder, extrañar
open opened opened abrir
pack packed packed empacar
pay i paid paid pagar
phone phoned phoned llamar por teléfono
play played played jugar
prefer preferred preferred preferir
prepare prepared prepared preparar
push pushed pushed empujar
put i put put poner
rain rained rained llover
read i read read leer
remember remembered remembered recordar
rent rented rented alquilar
rescue rescued rescued rescatar
return returned returned volver, devolver
ring i rang rung llamar por teléfono
save saved saved ahorrar
say i said said decir
search searched searched buscar
see i saw seen ver
sell i sold sold vender
sit i sat sat sentarse
skate skated skated patinar
ski skied skied esquiar
sleep i slept slept dormir
smell smelled smelled oler
speak i spoke spoken hablar
spend i spent spent gastar
start started started comenzar
stay stayed stayed quedarse
stop stopped stopped detener
study studied studied estudiar
survive survived survived sobrevivir
swim i swam swum nadar
take i took taken tomar
talk talked talked hablar
teach i taught taught enseñar
tell i told told decir
think i thought thought pensar
throw i threw thrown lanzar
touch touched touched tocar
try tried tried intentar
understand i understood understood entender
use used used usar
visit visited visited visitar
wait waited waited esperar
walk walked walked caminar
want wanted wanted querer
wash washed washed lavar
watch watched watched mirar
wear i wore worn llevar puesto
work worked worked trabajar
write i wrote written escribir

_________________________________________________________________________

Infinitive Simple Past Past Participle Spanish
add added added agregar
answer answered answered responder
apologise apologised apologised disculparse
arrest arrested arrested arrestar
arrive arrived arrived llegar
ask asked asked preguntar
attack attacked attacked atacar
be i was / were been ser
become i became become convertirse
begin i began begun comenzar
believe believed believed creer
boil boiled boiled hervir
book booked booked reservar
borrow borrowed borrowed tomar prestado
break i broke broken romper
bring i brought brought traer
build i built built construir
buy i bought bought comprar
catch i caught caught atrapar
carry carried carried llevar
change changed changed cambiar
chop chopped chopped picar
clean cleaned cleaned limpiar
climb climbed climbed escalar
collect collected collected colleccionar
come i came come venir
compose composed composed componer
cook cooked cooked cocinar
copy copied copied copiar
cut i cut cut cortar
dance danced danced bailar
describe described described describir
destroy destroyed destroyed destruir
die died died morir
discover discovered discovered descubrir
discuss discussed discussed discutir
do i did done hacer
draw i drew drawn dibujar
dream i dreamt/dreamed dreamt/dreamed soñar
drink i drank drunk beber
drive i drove driven conducir
dye dyed dyed teñir
eat i ate eaten comer
enjoy enjoyed enjoyed disfrutar
explode exploded exploded explotar
extinguish extinguished extinguished extinguirse
fall i fell fallen caer
feed i fed fed alimentar
feel i felt felt sentir
fight i fought fought pelear
find i found found encontrar
fly i flew flown volar
forget i forgot forgotten olvidar
freeze i froze frozen congelar
fry fried fried freír
give i gave given dar
go i went gone ir
grow i grew grown crecer
happen happened happened suceder
hate hated hated odiar
have i had had tener
hear i heard heard oír
help helped helped ayudar
hire hired hired alquilar
hope hoped hoped esperar
hunt hunted hunted cazar
hurt i hurt hurt herir, doler
imagine imagined imagined imaginar
invent invented invented inventar
invite invited invited invitar
jump jumped jumped saltar
keep i kept kept guardar
kill killed killed matar
know i knew known saber
leave i left left dejar
lend i lent lent prestar
lie i lay lain yacer
lie lied lied mentir
lift lifted lifted levantar
like liked liked gustar
listen listened listened escuchar
live lived lived vivir
look looked looked mirar
lose i lost lost perder
love loved loved amar
make i made made hacer
meet i met met conocer, encontrar
miss missed missed perder, extrañar
offer offered offered ofrecer
open opened opened abrir
pack packed packed empacar
pass passed passed pasar, aprobar
pay i paid paid pagar
peel peeled peeled pelar
phone phoned phoned llamar por teléfono
plan planned planned planificar
play played played jugar
pour poured poured verter
prefer preferred preferred preferir
prepare prepared prepared preparar
push pushed pushed empujar
put i put put poner
rain rained rained llover
read i read read leer
reduce reduced reduced reducir
remember remembered remembered recordar
rent rented rented alquilar
rescue rescued rescued rescatar
return returned returned volver, devolver
ring i rang rung llamar por teléfono
run i ran run correr
save saved saved ahorrar
say i said said decir
search searched searched buscar
send i sent sent enviar
scream screamed screamed gritar
see i saw seen ver
sell i sold sold vender
shine i shone shone brillar
shoot i shot shot disparar
shut i shut shut cerrar
sing i sang sung cantar
sit i sat sat sentarse
skate skated skated patinar
ski skied skied esquiar
sleep i slept slept dormir
smell smelled smelled oler
snore snored snored roncar
speak i spoke spoken hablar
spend i spent spent gastar
start started started comenzar
stay stayed stayed quedarse
steal i stole stolen robar
stop stopped stopped detener
study studied studied estudiar
survive survived survived sobrevivir
swim i swam swum nadar
take i took taken tomar
talk talked talked hablar
teach i taught taught enseñar
tell i told told decir
thank thanked thanked agradecer
think i thought thought pensar
throw i threw thrown lanzar
touch touched touched tocar
try tried tried intentar
use used used usar
understand i understood understood entender
visit visited visited visitar
wait waited waited esperar
walk walked walked caminar
want wanted wanted querer
warn warned warned advertir
wash washed washed lavar
watch watched watched mirar
wear i wore worn llevar puesto
win i won won ganar
work worked worked trabajar
write i wrote written escribir

_____________________________________________________________

Verbos modales

Los verbos modales realizan una función similar a la de los verbos
auxiliares. Dan información adicional sobre el verbo que los sigue y se
utilizan para indicar posibilidad, probabilidad, certeza, deducción,
capacidad, consejo, obligación, prohibición, permiso, hacer peticiones,
ofrecimientos, sugerencias, etc.

Son verbos modales: can, could, may, might, must, ought to, shall,
should, will y would.

Los verbos modales tienen algunas características que los diferencian de los verbos normales:
1. Los modales van seguidos siempre de un verbo en infinitivo:

She must leave in a few minutes.
I think it will look rather nice.
Things might have been so different.
People may be watching.
She ought to go straight back to England.
My sister can’t drive yet.
You could be right.
Shall we go out for a meal tonight?
You should study harder.
Would you finish this for me?

2. Los modales sólo tienen una forma. No añaden ‘-s’ a la tercera
persona del singular del presente y no tienen formas acabadas en ‘-
ing’ o en ‘-ed’. Tampoco tienen infinitivo.

There’s nothing I can do about it.
I’m sure he can do it.
2

3. Los verbos modales no necesitan el auxiliar DO para la forma
negativa ni para las preguntas. Para la forma negativa de un modal
simplemente añadimos NOT o una palabra negativa inmediatamente
detrás del modal.

You must not worry.
I can never remember his name.
‘Can + not’ se escribe siembre como una palabra, ‘cannot’.
I cannot go back. = I can’t go back.

En inglés hablado o escrito informal ‘not’ se contrae en ‘-n’t’ y se
añade al modal:

could not -> couldn’t We couldn’t leave the farm.
should not -> shouldn’t You shouldn’t talk like that.
must not -> mustn’t You mustn’t talk about Ron like that.
would not -> wouldn’t I wouldn’t do it if I were you.

Las siguientes formas contractas son irregulares:

shall not -> shan’t I shan’t let you go.

will not -> won’t Won’t you change your mind?

cannot -> can’t We can’t stop now.

‘Might not’ y ‘ought not’ se contraen a veces en ‘mightn’t’ y

‘oughtn’t’. Sin embargo, es muy raro que ‘may not’ aparezca como
‘mayn’t’ en inglés moderno.

Para hacer una pregunta, se pone el modal delante del sujeto.

Could you give me an example?
Will you be coming in later?
Shall I shut the door?

4. La mayoría de los verbos modales no se pueden utilizar en tiempos
de pasado o futuro. Por ejemplo, no podemos decir

*She will can come with me.

Tampoco es correcto *We musted study a lot.

Cuando nos referimos al pasado, utilizamos un modal seguido de ‘have’ y un
participio pasado:

They may have seen the film – Puede que hayan visto la película

5. Los modales no indican normalmente el tiempo en que ocurre
algo. Sin embargo, ‘shall’ y ‘will’ indican a menudo un hecho o una
situación futura.

I shall do what you suggested.
He will not return for many hours.

6. En inglés hablado y en inglés escrito informal, ‘shall’ y ‘will’ se
utilizan en forma contracta como ‘ll. ‘Would’ se contrae en ‘d.

I’ll see you tomorrow.
I hope you’ll agree.
Mary said she’d love to stay.

‘Shall’, ‘will’ y ‘would’ no se contraen cuando van al final de una
oración.
Paul said he would come, and I hope he will.

ATENCIÓN: La forma contracta del auxiliar ‘had’ es también ‘d.

I’d heard it many times. = I had heard it many times.

7. ‘Could’ se utiliza como pasado de ‘can’ para expresar habilidad.
‘Would’ se utiliza en estilo indirecto como reporting verb de ‘will’
para expresar futuro.

When I was young, I could run for miles.
I will see my mother tomorrow
–> He said that he would see his mother the next day.

8. Nunca se usan dos modales juntos. Por ejemplo, no se puede decir
*”He will can come”. En su lugar se puede utilizar BE ABLE TO:

“He will be able to come”.

De la misma forma, tampoco podemos decir *”I will must go”. Pero
podemos utilizar HAVE TO:

“I will have to go”.

9. Los modales se pueden utilizar en question tags :

You won’t tell her, will you?
She can drive, can’t she?

Prohibición / Obligación / Ausencia de obligación / Permiso
Prohibición Obligación Ausencia de obligación Permiso

mustn’t
You mustn’t run in the corridor

must
You must be here on time

needn’t
You needn’t come tomorrow

can
You can use your book

can’t
You can’t use your dictionary in the exam

have (got) to
You have to wear a uniform
You’ve got to be quiet.

don’t have to
You don’t have to buy it

may
May I use your car?

may not
You may not use your mobile phone here

should
You should bring your book

haven’t got to
I haven’t got to do any homework

could
Could I take another biscuit?

shall not
You shall not leave without permission

ought to
It’s very cold. You ought to take a coat

didn’t need to
I didn’t need to take the bus because it was just across the road.

needn’t have +past participle
You needn’t have come (You came although it wasn’t necessary)

5
Habilidad o capacidad / Posibilidad o probabilidad / Certeza
/ Deducciones Habilidad o Capacidad Posibilidad o probabilidad Certeza Deducciones

can
I can speak French

can
The temperature in Jaén can reach 40ºC in July

will
Most of you will have heard of this.

must
You must be Tom’s father.

could
When I was younger I could play tennis quite well.

could
They could be friends

would
You would agree that changes

must be done
can’t
She can’t have left the party.

be able to
- I’ll be able to finish it on time.
- We were able to talk to the headteacher. (We actually talked to her)

may
It may rain

should
She should be sad living in Great Britain

must have + past participle
She must have forgotten

might
It might be true

shall
We shall be leaving as soon as we are ready.

can’t have + past participle
She can’t have finished yet

may have + past participle
She may have forgotten it

must have + past participle
I must have left my credit card in the bookshop (I’m sure I did)

might have + past participle
They might have arrived

could have + past participle
He could have killed her

6
Peticiones / Ofrecimientos / Sugerencias y consejos / Deseos
Peticiones Ofrecimientos Sugerencias y consejos Deseos

can
Can you help me?

can
Can I help you?

should
You should ask your teacher

would
I would like to know the answer.

could
Could I interrupt you?

may
May I help you?

ought to
She ought to be more careful

would rather
I would rather have left

will
Will you open the window, please?

shall
Shall I close the door?

could
We could go to the cinema.

would sooner
I’d sooner walk than go by bus

would you mind if
Would you mind If I used your car?

will
Will you have a cup of tea?

should have + past participle
She ought to have finished it.

would you mind + V-ing
Would you mind bringing some bread?

would
Would you like a drink?

shall
Shall we meet outside the bank?

should
Should I phone for a taxi for you?

can
You can take a taxi if you are tired

might
You might like to come with us

had better
You’d better leave now (we might have a quarrel)

http://webs.ono.com/lallena/ModalVerbs.html

_____________________________________________________________

Abbreviation Abreviatura, Abreviación
Abdication Abdicación
Acclamation Aclamación
Accumulation Acumulación
Administration Administración
Admiration Admiración
Adoration Adoración
Affirmation Afirmación
Agglomeration Aglomeración
Agitation Agitación
Allegation Alegación
Animation Animación
Anticipation Anticipación
Application Aplicación
Assassination *Asesinato
Assimilation Asimilación
Association Asociación
Authentication Autenticación
Authorization Autorización
Automation Automatización
Aviation Aviación
Celebration Celebración
Cessation Cesación
Circulation Circulación
Civilization Civilización
Classification Clasificación
Collaboration Colaboración
Combination Combinación
Commemoration Conmemoración
Commendation Recomendación
Communication Comunicación
Compensation Compensación
Compilation Compilación
Concentration Concentración
Condemnation Condenación
Condensation Condensación
Confirmation Confirmación
Confiscation Confiscación
Confrontation **Enfrentamiento
Congratulation Feliciatión
Congregation Congregación
Consideration Consideración
Consolation *Consuelo
Constellation Constelación
Consternation Consternación
Consultation Consultación
Contamination Contaminación
Contemplation Contemplación
Continuation Continuación
Conversation Conversación
Cooperation Cooperación
Coronation Coronación
Corporation Corporación
Correlation Correlación
Corroboration Corroboración
Creation Creación
Cultivation Cultivo*
Declaration Declaración
Degeneration Degeneración
Degradation Degradación
Delegation Delegación
Deliberation Deliberación
Delineation Delineación
Demonstration Demostración Manifestación (protest)
Deregulation Dereglamentación
Derivation Derivación
Derogation Detracción
Desecration Desecration
Desegregation Desegregation
Desolation Desolación
Destination Destino
Determination Determinación
Detestation *Aborrecimiento
Detonation Detonación
Dictation *Dictado
Differentiation Differentiation
Discrimination Discriminación
Disputation *disputa
Dissemination Diseminación
Documentation Documentación
Domestication Domestication
Domination Dominación
Donation Donación
Duration Duración
Education Educación
Ejaculation Eyaculación
Elaboration Elaboración
Elevation Elevación
Elimination Eliminación
Emancipation Emancipación
Emulation Emulación
Equation Ecuación
Evacuation Evacuación
Exaggeration Exageración
Examination *Examen
Exclamation Exclamación
Excommunication *Excomunión
Expectation *Expectativa
Experimentation Experimentación
Explanation Explicación
Exploration Exploración
Expostulation Expostulation
Extermination Exterminio
Exultation Exultation
Facilitation Facilitación
Fascination Fascinación
Federation Confederación
Fermentation Fermentación
Formation Formación
Formulation Fórmulación
Foundation Fundación
Generation Generación
Germination Germinación
Gratification Gratificación
Gravitation Gravitación
Hallucination *Alucinación
Hesitation Vacilación
Hibernation Hibernación
Humiliation Humillación
Identification Identificación
Illumination Iluminación
Illustration Ilustración
Imagination Imaginación
Imitation Imitación
Immigration Inmigración
Implication Implicación
Inclination Inclinación
Indentation Indentación
Indication Indicación
Indignation Indignación
Information Información
Initiation Iniciación
Innovation Innovación
Inoculation Inoculación
Insinuation Insinuación
Inspiration Inspiración
Installation Instalación
Instigation Provocación
Interpretation Interpretación
Intimation Intimación
Intonation Entonación
Inundation Inundación
Investigation Investigación (research)
Invitation Invitación
Invocation Invocación
Isolation Aislamiento
Justification Justificación
Lamentation Lamentación
Legislation Legislación
Limitation Limitación
Litigation Litigación
Location Ubicación
Maceration Maceración
Machination Maquinación
Manifestation Manifestación
Manipulation Manipulación
Mastication Masticación
Materialization Materialización
Meditation Mediación
Mineralisation Mineralisation
Moderation Moderación
Modification Modificación
Mutilation Mutilación
Narration Narración
Nation Nación
Naturalization Naturalización
Obligation Obligación
Observation Observación
Occupation Ocupación
Operation Operación
Organization Organización
Orientation Orientación
Ovation Ovación
Overpopulation *Superpoblación
Participation Participación
Penetration Penetración
Perspiration *Transpiración
Perturbation Perturbación
Population *Población
Precipitation Precipitación
Predestination Predestinación
Premeditation Premeditación
Preparation Preparación
Presentation Presentación
Preservation **Conservación
Privation Privación
Proliferation Proliferación
Prolongation Prolongación
Pronunciation Pronunciación
Propagation Propagación
Provocation Provocación
Publication Publicación
Punctuation Puntuación
Qualification **Cualificación
Realization Realización
Recitation Recitación
Reconciliation Conciliación
Recreation Recreación
Rectification Rectificación
Registration Inscripción
Regulation Regulación
Rehabilitation Rehabilitación
Relation Relación
Renunciation Renunciación
Reorganization Reorganización
Representation Representación
Reprobation Reprobation
Reputation Reputación
Respiration Respiración
Restoration Restauración
Retaliation Retaliación Represalia
Revelation Revelación
Salutation Salutación
Salvation Salvación
Segregation Segregación
Sensation Sensación
Separation Separación
Signification Significación
Simulation Simulación
Situation Situación
Sophistication Sofisticación
Speculation Especulación
Stagnation *Estancación Estancamiento
Starvation **Inanición
Station Estación
Stipulation Estipulación
Temptation *Tentación
Toleration Tolerancia
Transfiguration Transfiguración
Transformation Transformación
Translation *Traducción
Transportation Transportación
Tribulation Tribulación
Trituration Trituration
Vacation Vacación
Vegetation Vegetación
Veneration Veneración
Ventilation Ventilación
Verification Verificación
Violation Violación (usually means rape in Spanish)
Vocation Vocación

THE 100 MOST USED VERBS IN ENGLISH

accept
allow
ask
believe
borrow
break
bring
buy
can/be able
cancel
change
clean
comb
complain
cough
count
cut
dance
draw
drink
drive
eat
explain
fall
fill
find
finish
fit
fix
fly
forget
give
go
have
hear
hurt
know
learn
leave
listen
live
look
lose
make/do
need
open

________________________________________________________________________

close/shut
organize
pay
play
put
rain
read
reply
run
say
see
sell
send
sign
sing
sit
sleep
smoke
speak
spell
spend
stand
start/begin
study
succeed
swim
take
talk
teach
tell
think
translate
travel
try
turn off
turn on
type
understand
use
wait
wake up
want
watch
work
worry
write
_____________________________________________________
Infinitive Simple Past Past Participle Spanish
answer answered answered responder
arrive arrived arrived llegar
ask asked asked preguntar
be i was / were been ser
borrow borrowed borrowed tomar prestado
break i broke broken romper
buy i bought bought comprar
catch i caught caught atrapar
clean cleaned cleaned limpiar
climb climbed climbed escalar
collect collected collected colleccionar
come i came come venir
compose composed composed componer
cook cooked cooked cocinar
cut i cut cut cortar
dance danced danced bailar
describe described described describir
discover discovered discovered descubrir
do i did done hacer
drink i drank drunk beber
drive i drove driven conducir
eat i ate eaten comer
enjoy enjoyed enjoyed disfrutar
fall i fell fallen caer
feel i felt felt sentir
find i found found encontrar
fly i flew flown volar
forget i forgot forgotten olvidar
give i gave given dar
go i went gone ir
happen happened happened suceder
have i had had tener
help helped helped ayudar
hurt i hurt hurt herir, doler
invent invented invented inventar
invite invited invited invitar
kill killed killed matar
know i knew known saber
lend i lent lent prestar
leave i left left dejar
lie i lay lain yacer
like liked liked gustar
live lived lived vivir
look looked looked mirar
love loved loved amar
make i made made hacer
meet i met met conocer, encontrar
miss missed missed perder, extrañar
open opened opened abrir
pack packed packed empacar
pay i paid paid pagar
phone phoned phoned llamar por teléfono
play played played jugar
prefer preferred preferred preferir
prepare prepared prepared preparar
push pushed pushed empujar
put i put put poner
rain rained rained llover
read i read read leer
remember remembered remembered recordar
rent rented rented alquilar
rescue rescued rescued rescatar
return returned returned volver, devolver
ring i rang rung llamar por teléfono
save saved saved ahorrar
say i said said decir
search searched searched buscar
see i saw seen ver
sell i sold sold vender
sit i sat sat sentarse
skate skated skated patinar
ski skied skied esquiar
sleep i slept slept dormir
smell smelled smelled oler
speak i spoke spoken hablar
spend i spent spent gastar
start started started comenzar
stay stayed stayed quedarse
stop stopped stopped detener
study studied studied estudiar
survive survived survived sobrevivir
swim i swam swum nadar
take i took taken tomar
talk talked talked hablar
teach i taught taught enseñar
tell i told told decir
think i thought thought pensar
throw i threw thrown lanzar
touch touched touched tocar
try tried tried intentar
understand i understood understood entender
use used used usar
visit visited visited visitar
wait waited waited esperar
walk walked walked caminar
want wanted wanted querer
wash washed washed lavar
watch watched watched mirar
wear i wore worn llevar puesto
work worked worked trabajar
write i wrote written escribir

_________________________________________________________________________

Infinitive Simple Past Past Participle Spanish
add added added agregar
answer answered answered responder
apologise apologised apologised disculparse
arrest arrested arrested arrestar
arrive arrived arrived llegar
ask asked asked preguntar
attack attacked attacked atacar
be i was / were been ser
become i became become convertirse
begin i began begun comenzar
believe believed believed creer
boil boiled boiled hervir
book booked booked reservar
borrow borrowed borrowed tomar prestado
break i broke broken romper
bring i brought brought traer
build i built built construir
buy i bought bought comprar
catch i caught caught atrapar
carry carried carried llevar
change changed changed cambiar
chop chopped chopped picar
clean cleaned cleaned limpiar
climb climbed climbed escalar
collect collected collected colleccionar
come i came come venir
compose composed composed componer
cook cooked cooked cocinar
copy copied copied copiar
cut i cut cut cortar
dance danced danced bailar
describe described described describir
destroy destroyed destroyed destruir
die died died morir
discover discovered discovered descubrir
discuss discussed discussed discutir
do i did done hacer
draw i drew drawn dibujar
dream i dreamt/dreamed dreamt/dreamed soñar
drink i drank drunk beber
drive i drove driven conducir
dye dyed dyed teñir
eat i ate eaten comer
enjoy enjoyed enjoyed disfrutar
explode exploded exploded explotar
extinguish extinguished extinguished extinguirse
fall i fell fallen caer
feed i fed fed alimentar
feel i felt felt sentir
fight i fought fought pelear
find i found found encontrar
fly i flew flown volar
forget i forgot forgotten olvidar
freeze i froze frozen congelar
fry fried fried freír
give i gave given dar
go i went gone ir
grow i grew grown crecer
happen happened happened suceder
hate hated hated odiar
have i had had tener
hear i heard heard oír
help helped helped ayudar
hire hired hired alquilar
hope hoped hoped esperar
hunt hunted hunted cazar
hurt i hurt hurt herir, doler
imagine imagined imagined imaginar
invent invented invented inventar
invite invited invited invitar
jump jumped jumped saltar
keep i kept kept guardar
kill killed killed matar
know i knew known saber
leave i left left dejar
lend i lent lent prestar
lie i lay lain yacer
lie lied lied mentir
lift lifted lifted levantar
like liked liked gustar
listen listened listened escuchar
live lived lived vivir
look looked looked mirar
lose i lost lost perder
love loved loved amar
make i made made hacer
meet i met met conocer, encontrar
miss missed missed perder, extrañar
offer offered offered ofrecer
open opened opened abrir
pack packed packed empacar
pass passed passed pasar, aprobar
pay i paid paid pagar
peel peeled peeled pelar
phone phoned phoned llamar por teléfono
plan planned planned planificar
play played played jugar
pour poured poured verter
prefer preferred preferred preferir
prepare prepared prepared preparar
push pushed pushed empujar
put i put put poner
rain rained rained llover
read i read read leer
reduce reduced reduced reducir
remember remembered remembered recordar
rent rented rented alquilar
rescue rescued rescued rescatar
return returned returned volver, devolver
ring i rang rung llamar por teléfono
run i ran run correr
save saved saved ahorrar
say i said said decir
search searched searched buscar
send i sent sent enviar
scream screamed screamed gritar
see i saw seen ver
sell i sold sold vender
shine i shone shone brillar
shoot i shot shot disparar
shut i shut shut cerrar
sing i sang sung cantar
sit i sat sat sentarse
skate skated skated patinar
ski skied skied esquiar
sleep i slept slept dormir
smell smelled smelled oler
snore snored snored roncar
speak i spoke spoken hablar
spend i spent spent gastar
start started started comenzar
stay stayed stayed quedarse
steal i stole stolen robar
stop stopped stopped detener
study studied studied estudiar
survive survived survived sobrevivir
swim i swam swum nadar
take i took taken tomar
talk talked talked hablar
teach i taught taught enseñar
tell i told told decir
thank thanked thanked agradecer
think i thought thought pensar
throw i threw thrown lanzar
touch touched touched tocar
try tried tried intentar
use used used usar
understand i understood understood entender
visit visited visited visitar
wait waited waited esperar
walk walked walked caminar
want wanted wanted querer
warn warned warned advertir
wash washed washed lavar
watch watched watched mirar
wear i wore worn llevar puesto
win i won won ganar
work worked worked trabajar
write i wrote written escribir

_____________________________________________________________

Verbos modales

Los verbos modales realizan una función similar a la de los verbos
auxiliares. Dan información adicional sobre el verbo que los sigue y se
utilizan para indicar posibilidad, probabilidad, certeza, deducción,
capacidad, consejo, obligación, prohibición, permiso, hacer peticiones,
ofrecimientos, sugerencias, etc.

Son verbos modales: can, could, may, might, must, ought to, shall,
should, will y would.

Los verbos modales tienen algunas características que los diferencian de los verbos normales:
1. Los modales van seguidos siempre de un verbo en infinitivo:

She must leave in a few minutes.
I think it will look rather nice.
Things might have been so different.
People may be watching.
She ought to go straight back to England.
My sister can’t drive yet.
You could be right.
Shall we go out for a meal tonight?
You should study harder.
Would you finish this for me?

2. Los modales sólo tienen una forma. No añaden ‘-s’ a la tercera
persona del singular del presente y no tienen formas acabadas en ‘-
ing’ o en ‘-ed’. Tampoco tienen infinitivo.

There’s nothing I can do about it.
I’m sure he can do it.
2

3. Los verbos modales no necesitan el auxiliar DO para la forma
negativa ni para las preguntas. Para la forma negativa de un modal
simplemente añadimos NOT o una palabra negativa inmediatamente
detrás del modal.

You must not worry.
I can never remember his name.
‘Can + not’ se escribe siembre como una palabra, ‘cannot’.
I cannot go back. = I can’t go back.

En inglés hablado o escrito informal ‘not’ se contrae en ‘-n’t’ y se
añade al modal:

could not -> couldn’t We couldn’t leave the farm.
should not -> shouldn’t You shouldn’t talk like that.
must not -> mustn’t You mustn’t talk about Ron like that.
would not -> wouldn’t I wouldn’t do it if I were you.

Las siguientes formas contractas son irregulares:

shall not -> shan’t I shan’t let you go.

will not -> won’t Won’t you change your mind?

cannot -> can’t We can’t stop now.

‘Might not’ y ‘ought not’ se contraen a veces en ‘mightn’t’ y

‘oughtn’t’. Sin embargo, es muy raro que ‘may not’ aparezca como
‘mayn’t’ en inglés moderno.

Para hacer una pregunta, se pone el modal delante del sujeto.

Could you give me an example?
Will you be coming in later?
Shall I shut the door?

4. La mayoría de los verbos modales no se pueden utilizar en tiempos
de pasado o futuro. Por ejemplo, no podemos decir

*She will can come with me.

Tampoco es correcto *We musted study a lot.

Cuando nos referimos al pasado, utilizamos un modal seguido de ‘have’ y un
participio pasado:

They may have seen the film – Puede que hayan visto la película

5. Los modales no indican normalmente el tiempo en que ocurre
algo. Sin embargo, ‘shall’ y ‘will’ indican a menudo un hecho o una
situación futura.

I shall do what you suggested.
He will not return for many hours.

6. En inglés hablado y en inglés escrito informal, ‘shall’ y ‘will’ se
utilizan en forma contracta como ‘ll. ‘Would’ se contrae en ‘d.

I’ll see you tomorrow.
I hope you’ll agree.
Mary said she’d love to stay.

‘Shall’, ‘will’ y ‘would’ no se contraen cuando van al final de una
oración.
Paul said he would come, and I hope he will.

ATENCIÓN: La forma contracta del auxiliar ‘had’ es también ‘d.

I’d heard it many times. = I had heard it many times.

7. ‘Could’ se utiliza como pasado de ‘can’ para expresar habilidad.
‘Would’ se utiliza en estilo indirecto como reporting verb de ‘will’
para expresar futuro.

When I was young, I could run for miles.
I will see my mother tomorrow
–> He said that he would see his mother the next day.

8. Nunca se usan dos modales juntos. Por ejemplo, no se puede decir
*”He will can come”. En su lugar se puede utilizar BE ABLE TO:

“He will be able to come”.

De la misma forma, tampoco podemos decir *”I will must go”. Pero
podemos utilizar HAVE TO:

“I will have to go”.

9. Los modales se pueden utilizar en question tags :

You won’t tell her, will you?
She can drive, can’t she?

Prohibición / Obligación / Ausencia de obligación / Permiso
Prohibición Obligación Ausencia de obligación Permiso

mustn’t
You mustn’t run in the corridor

must
You must be here on time

needn’t
You needn’t come tomorrow

can
You can use your book

can’t
You can’t use your dictionary in the exam

have (got) to
You have to wear a uniform
You’ve got to be quiet.

don’t have to
You don’t have to buy it

may
May I use your car?

may not
You may not use your mobile phone here

should
You should bring your book

haven’t got to
I haven’t got to do any homework

could
Could I take another biscuit?

shall not
You shall not leave without permission

ought to
It’s very cold. You ought to take a coat

didn’t need to
I didn’t need to take the bus because it was just across the road.

needn’t have +past participle
You needn’t have come (You came although it wasn’t necessary)

5
Habilidad o capacidad / Posibilidad o probabilidad / Certeza
/ Deducciones Habilidad o Capacidad Posibilidad o probabilidad Certeza Deducciones

can
I can speak French

can
The temperature in Jaén can reach 40ºC in July

will
Most of you will have heard of this.

must
You must be Tom’s father.

could
When I was younger I could play tennis quite well.

could
They could be friends

would
You would agree that changes

must be done
can’t
She can’t have left the party.

be able to
- I’ll be able to finish it on time.
- We were able to talk to the headteacher. (We actually talked to her)

may
It may rain

should
She should be sad living in Great Britain

must have + past participle
She must have forgotten

might
It might be true

shall
We shall be leaving as soon as we are ready.

can’t have + past participle
She can’t have finished yet

may have + past participle
She may have forgotten it

must have + past participle
I must have left my credit card in the bookshop (I’m sure I did)

might have + past participle
They might have arrived

could have + past participle
He could have killed her

6
Peticiones / Ofrecimientos / Sugerencias y consejos / Deseos
Peticiones Ofrecimientos Sugerencias y consejos Deseos

can
Can you help me?

can
Can I help you?

should
You should ask your teacher

would
I would like to know the answer.

could
Could I interrupt you?

may
May I help you?

ought to
She ought to be more careful

would rather
I would rather have left

will
Will you open the window, please?

shall
Shall I close the door?

could
We could go to the cinema.

would sooner
I’d sooner walk than go by bus

would you mind if
Would you mind If I used your car?

will
Will you have a cup of tea?

should have + past participle
She ought to have finished it.

would you mind + V-ing
Would you mind bringing some bread?

would
Would you like a drink?

shall
Shall we meet outside the bank?

should
Should I phone for a taxi for you?

can
You can take a taxi if you are tired

might
You might like to come with us

had better
You’d better leave now (we might have a quarrel)

http://webs.ono.com/lallena/ModalVerbs.html

_____________________________________________________________

Abbreviation Abreviatura, Abreviación
Abdication Abdicación
Acclamation Aclamación
Accumulation Acumulación
Administration Administración
Admiration Admiración
Adoration Adoración
Affirmation Afirmación
Agglomeration Aglomeración
Agitation Agitación
Allegation Alegación
Animation Animación
Anticipation Anticipación
Application Aplicación
Assassination *Asesinato
Assimilation Asimilación
Association Asociación
Authentication Autenticación
Authorization Autorización
Automation Automatización
Aviation Aviación
Celebration Celebración
Cessation Cesación
Circulation Circulación
Civilization Civilización
Classification Clasificación
Collaboration Colaboración
Combination Combinación
Commemoration Conmemoración
Commendation Recomendación
Communication Comunicación
Compensation Compensación
Compilation Compilación
Concentration Concentración
Condemnation Condenación
Condensation Condensación
Confirmation Confirmación
Confiscation Confiscación
Confrontation **Enfrentamiento
Congratulation Feliciatión
Congregation Congregación
Consideration Consideración
Consolation *Consuelo
Constellation Constelación
Consternation Consternación
Consultation Consultación
Contamination Contaminación
Contemplation Contemplación
Continuation Continuación
Conversation Conversación
Cooperation Cooperación
Coronation Coronación
Corporation Corporación
Correlation Correlación
Corroboration Corroboración
Creation Creación
Cultivation Cultivo*
Declaration Declaración
Degeneration Degeneración
Degradation Degradación
Delegation Delegación
Deliberation Deliberación
Delineation Delineación
Demonstration Demostración Manifestación (protest)
Deregulation Dereglamentación
Derivation Derivación
Derogation Detracción
Desecration Desecration
Desegregation Desegregation
Desolation Desolación
Destination Destino
Determination Determinación
Detestation *Aborrecimiento
Detonation Detonación
Dictation *Dictado
Differentiation Differentiation
Discrimination Discriminación
Disputation *disputa
Dissemination Diseminación
Documentation Documentación
Domestication Domestication
Domination Dominación
Donation Donación
Duration Duración
Education Educación
Ejaculation Eyaculación
Elaboration Elaboración
Elevation Elevación
Elimination Eliminación
Emancipation Emancipación
Emulation Emulación
Equation Ecuación
Evacuation Evacuación
Exaggeration Exageración
Examination *Examen
Exclamation Exclamación
Excommunication *Excomunión
Expectation *Expectativa
Experimentation Experimentación
Explanation Explicación
Exploration Exploración
Expostulation Expostulation
Extermination Exterminio
Exultation Exultation
Facilitation Facilitación
Fascination Fascinación
Federation Confederación
Fermentation Fermentación
Formation Formación
Formulation Fórmulación
Foundation Fundación
Generation Generación
Germination Germinación
Gratification Gratificación
Gravitation Gravitación
Hallucination *Alucinación
Hesitation Vacilación
Hibernation Hibernación
Humiliation Humillación
Identification Identificación
Illumination Iluminación
Illustration Ilustración
Imagination Imaginación
Imitation Imitación
Immigration Inmigración
Implication Implicación
Inclination Inclinación
Indentation Indentación
Indication Indicación
Indignation Indignación
Information Información
Initiation Iniciación
Innovation Innovación
Inoculation Inoculación
Insinuation Insinuación
Inspiration Inspiración
Installation Instalación
Instigation Provocación
Interpretation Interpretación
Intimation Intimación
Intonation Entonación
Inundation Inundación
Investigation Investigación (research)
Invitation Invitación
Invocation Invocación
Isolation Aislamiento
Justification Justificación
Lamentation Lamentación
Legislation Legislación
Limitation Limitación
Litigation Litigación
Location Ubicación
Maceration Maceración
Machination Maquinación
Manifestation Manifestación
Manipulation Manipulación
Mastication Masticación
Materialization Materialización
Meditation Mediación
Mineralisation Mineralisation
Moderation Moderación
Modification Modificación
Mutilation Mutilación
Narration Narración
Nation Nación
Naturalization Naturalización
Obligation Obligación
Observation Observación
Occupation Ocupación
Operation Operación
Organization Organización
Orientation Orientación
Ovation Ovación
Overpopulation *Superpoblación
Participation Participación
Penetration Penetración
Perspiration *Transpiración
Perturbation Perturbación
Population *Población
Precipitation Precipitación
Predestination Predestinación
Premeditation Premeditación
Preparation Preparación
Presentation Presentación
Preservation **Conservación
Privation Privación
Proliferation Proliferación
Prolongation Prolongación
Pronunciation Pronunciación
Propagation Propagación
Provocation Provocación
Publication Publicación
Punctuation Puntuación
Qualification **Cualificación
Realization Realización
Recitation Recitación
Reconciliation Conciliación
Recreation Recreación
Rectification Rectificación
Registration Inscripción
Regulation Regulación
Rehabilitation Rehabilitación
Relation Relación
Renunciation Renunciación
Reorganization Reorganización
Representation Representación
Reprobation Reprobation
Reputation Reputación
Respiration Respiración
Restoration Restauración
Retaliation Retaliación Represalia
Revelation Revelación
Salutation Salutación
Salvation Salvación
Segregation Segregación
Sensation Sensación
Separation Separación
Signification Significación
Simulation Simulación
Situation Situación
Sophistication Sofisticación
Speculation Especulación
Stagnation *Estancación Estancamiento
Starvation **Inanición
Station Estación
Stipulation Estipulación
Temptation *Tentación
Toleration Tolerancia
Transfiguration Transfiguración
Transformation Transformación
Translation *Traducción
Transportation Transportación
Tribulation Tribulación
Trituration Trituration
Vacation Vacación
Vegetation Vegetación
Veneration Veneración
Ventilation Ventilación
Verification Verificación
Violation Violación (usually means rape in Spanish)
Vocation Vocación

THE 100 MOST USED VERBS IN ENGLISH

accept
allow
ask
believe
borrow
break
bring
buy
can/be able
cancel
change
clean
comb
complain
cough
count
cut
dance
draw
drink
drive
eat
explain
fall
fill
find
finish
fit
fix
fly
forget
give
go
have
hear
hurt
know
learn
leave
listen
live
look
lose
make/do
need
open

________________________________________________________________________

close/shut
organize
pay
play
put
rain
read
reply
run
say
see
sell
send
sign
sing
sit
sleep
smoke
speak
spell
spend
stand
start/begin
study
succeed
swim
take
talk
teach
tell
think
translate
travel
try
turn off
turn on
type
understand
use
wait
wake up
want
watch
work
worry
write
_____________________________________________________
Infinitive Simple Past Past Participle Spanish
answer answered answered responder
arrive arrived arrived llegar
ask asked asked preguntar
be i was / were been ser
borrow borrowed borrowed tomar prestado
break i broke broken romper
buy i bought bought comprar
catch i caught caught atrapar
clean cleaned cleaned limpiar
climb climbed climbed escalar
collect collected collected colleccionar
come i came come venir
compose composed composed componer
cook cooked cooked cocinar
cut i cut cut cortar
dance danced danced bailar
describe described described describir
discover discovered discovered descubrir
do i did done hacer
drink i drank drunk beber
drive i drove driven conducir
eat i ate eaten comer
enjoy enjoyed enjoyed disfrutar
fall i fell fallen caer
feel i felt felt sentir
find i found found encontrar
fly i flew flown volar
forget i forgot forgotten olvidar
give i gave given dar
go i went gone ir
happen happened happened suceder
have i had had tener
help helped helped ayudar
hurt i hurt hurt herir, doler
invent invented invented inventar
invite invited invited invitar
kill killed killed matar
know i knew known saber
lend i lent lent prestar
leave i left left dejar
lie i lay lain yacer
like liked liked gustar
live lived lived vivir
look looked looked mirar
love loved loved amar
make i made made hacer
meet i met met conocer, encontrar
miss missed missed perder, extrañar
open opened opened abrir
pack packed packed empacar
pay i paid paid pagar
phone phoned phoned llamar por teléfono
play played played jugar
prefer preferred preferred preferir
prepare prepared prepared preparar
push pushed pushed empujar
put i put put poner
rain rained rained llover
read i read read leer
remember remembered remembered recordar
rent rented rented alquilar
rescue rescued rescued rescatar
return returned returned volver, devolver
ring i rang rung llamar por teléfono
save saved saved ahorrar
say i said said decir
search searched searched buscar
see i saw seen ver
sell i sold sold vender
sit i sat sat sentarse
skate skated skated patinar
ski skied skied esquiar
sleep i slept slept dormir
smell smelled smelled oler
speak i spoke spoken hablar
spend i spent spent gastar
start started started comenzar
stay stayed stayed quedarse
stop stopped stopped detener
study studied studied estudiar
survive survived survived sobrevivir
swim i swam swum nadar
take i took taken tomar
talk talked talked hablar
teach i taught taught enseñar
tell i told told decir
think i thought thought pensar
throw i threw thrown lanzar
touch touched touched tocar
try tried tried intentar
understand i understood understood entender
use used used usar
visit visited visited visitar
wait waited waited esperar
walk walked walked caminar
want wanted wanted querer
wash washed washed lavar
watch watched watched mirar
wear i wore worn llevar puesto
work worked worked trabajar
write i wrote written escribir

_________________________________________________________________________

Infinitive Simple Past Past Participle Spanish
add added added agregar
answer answered answered responder
apologise apologised apologised disculparse
arrest arrested arrested arrestar
arrive arrived arrived llegar
ask asked asked preguntar
attack attacked attacked atacar
be i was / were been ser
become i became become convertirse
begin i began begun comenzar
believe believed believed creer
boil boiled boiled hervir
book booked booked reservar
borrow borrowed borrowed tomar prestado
break i broke broken romper
bring i brought brought traer
build i built built construir
buy i bought bought comprar
catch i caught caught atrapar
carry carried carried llevar
change changed changed cambiar
chop chopped chopped picar
clean cleaned cleaned limpiar
climb climbed climbed escalar
collect collected collected colleccionar
come i came come venir
compose composed composed componer
cook cooked cooked cocinar
copy copied copied copiar
cut i cut cut cortar
dance danced danced bailar
describe described described describir
destroy destroyed destroyed destruir
die died died morir
discover discovered discovered descubrir
discuss discussed discussed discutir
do i did done hacer
draw i drew drawn dibujar
dream i dreamt/dreamed dreamt/dreamed soñar
drink i drank drunk beber
drive i drove driven conducir
dye dyed dyed teñir
eat i ate eaten comer
enjoy enjoyed enjoyed disfrutar
explode exploded exploded explotar
extinguish extinguished extinguished extinguirse
fall i fell fallen caer
feed i fed fed alimentar
feel i felt felt sentir
fight i fought fought pelear
find i found found encontrar
fly i flew flown volar
forget i forgot forgotten olvidar
freeze i froze frozen congelar
fry fried fried freír
give i gave given dar
go i went gone ir
grow i grew grown crecer
happen happened happened suceder
hate hated hated odiar
have i had had tener
hear i heard heard oír
help helped helped ayudar
hire hired hired alquilar
hope hoped hoped esperar
hunt hunted hunted cazar
hurt i hurt hurt herir, doler
imagine imagined imagined imaginar
invent invented invented inventar
invite invited invited invitar
jump jumped jumped saltar
keep i kept kept guardar
kill killed killed matar
know i knew known saber
leave i left left dejar
lend i lent lent prestar
lie i lay lain yacer
lie lied lied mentir
lift lifted lifted levantar
like liked liked gustar
listen listened listened escuchar
live lived lived vivir
look looked looked mirar
lose i lost lost perder
love loved loved amar
make i made made hacer
meet i met met conocer, encontrar
miss missed missed perder, extrañar
offer offered offered ofrecer
open opened opened abrir
pack packed packed empacar
pass passed passed pasar, aprobar
pay i paid paid pagar
peel peeled peeled pelar
phone phoned phoned llamar por teléfono
plan planned planned planificar
play played played jugar
pour poured poured verter
prefer preferred preferred preferir
prepare prepared prepared preparar
push pushed pushed empujar
put i put put poner
rain rained rained llover
read i read read leer
reduce reduced reduced reducir
remember remembered remembered recordar
rent rented rented alquilar
rescue rescued rescued rescatar
return returned returned volver, devolver
ring i rang rung llamar por teléfono
run i ran run correr
save saved saved ahorrar
say i said said decir
search searched searched buscar
send i sent sent enviar
scream screamed screamed gritar
see i saw seen ver
sell i sold sold vender
shine i shone shone brillar
shoot i shot shot disparar
shut i shut shut cerrar
sing i sang sung cantar
sit i sat sat sentarse
skate skated skated patinar
ski skied skied esquiar
sleep i slept slept dormir
smell smelled smelled oler
snore snored snored roncar
speak i spoke spoken hablar
spend i spent spent gastar
start started started comenzar
stay stayed stayed quedarse
steal i stole stolen robar
stop stopped stopped detener
study studied studied estudiar
survive survived survived sobrevivir
swim i swam swum nadar
take i took taken tomar
talk talked talked hablar
teach i taught taught enseñar
tell i told told decir
thank thanked thanked agradecer
think i thought thought pensar
throw i threw thrown lanzar
touch touched touched tocar
try tried tried intentar
use used used usar
understand i understood understood entender
visit visited visited visitar
wait waited waited esperar
walk walked walked caminar
want wanted wanted querer
warn warned warned advertir
wash washed washed lavar
watch watched watched mirar
wear i wore worn llevar puesto
win i won won ganar
work worked worked trabajar
write i wrote written escribir

_____________________________________________________________

Verbos modales

Los verbos modales realizan una función similar a la de los verbos
auxiliares. Dan información adicional sobre el verbo que los sigue y se
utilizan para indicar posibilidad, probabilidad, certeza, deducción,
capacidad, consejo, obligación, prohibición, permiso, hacer peticiones,
ofrecimientos, sugerencias, etc.

Son verbos modales: can, could, may, might, must, ought to, shall,
should, will y would.

Los verbos modales tienen algunas características que los diferencian de los verbos normales:
1. Los modales van seguidos siempre de un verbo en infinitivo:

She must leave in a few minutes.
I think it will look rather nice.
Things might have been so different.
People may be watching.
She ought to go straight back to England.
My sister can’t drive yet.
You could be right.
Shall we go out for a meal tonight?
You should study harder.
Would you finish this for me?

2. Los modales sólo tienen una forma. No añaden ‘-s’ a la tercera
persona del singular del presente y no tienen formas acabadas en ‘-
ing’ o en ‘-ed’. Tampoco tienen infinitivo.

There’s nothing I can do about it.
I’m sure he can do it.
2

3. Los verbos modales no necesitan el auxiliar DO para la forma
negativa ni para las preguntas. Para la forma negativa de un modal
simplemente añadimos NOT o una palabra negativa inmediatamente
detrás del modal.

You must not worry.
I can never remember his name.
‘Can + not’ se escribe siembre como una palabra, ‘cannot’.
I cannot go back. = I can’t go back.

En inglés hablado o escrito informal ‘not’ se contrae en ‘-n’t’ y se
añade al modal:

could not -> couldn’t We couldn’t leave the farm.
should not -> shouldn’t You shouldn’t talk like that.
must not -> mustn’t You mustn’t talk about Ron like that.
would not -> wouldn’t I wouldn’t do it if I were you.

Las siguientes formas contractas son irregulares:

shall not -> shan’t I shan’t let you go.

will not -> won’t Won’t you change your mind?

cannot -> can’t We can’t stop now.

‘Might not’ y ‘ought not’ se contraen a veces en ‘mightn’t’ y

‘oughtn’t’. Sin embargo, es muy raro que ‘may not’ aparezca como
‘mayn’t’ en inglés moderno.

Para hacer una pregunta, se pone el modal delante del sujeto.

Could you give me an example?
Will you be coming in later?
Shall I shut the door?

4. La mayoría de los verbos modales no se pueden utilizar en tiempos
de pasado o futuro. Por ejemplo, no podemos decir

*She will can come with me.

Tampoco es correcto *We musted study a lot.

Cuando nos referimos al pasado, utilizamos un modal seguido de ‘have’ y un
participio pasado:

They may have seen the film – Puede que hayan visto la película

5. Los modales no indican normalmente el tiempo en que ocurre
algo. Sin embargo, ‘shall’ y ‘will’ indican a menudo un hecho o una
situación futura.

I shall do what you suggested.
He will not return for many hours.

6. En inglés hablado y en inglés escrito informal, ‘shall’ y ‘will’ se
utilizan en forma contracta como ‘ll. ‘Would’ se contrae en ‘d.

I’ll see you tomorrow.
I hope you’ll agree.
Mary said she’d love to stay.

‘Shall’, ‘will’ y ‘would’ no se contraen cuando van al final de una
oración.
Paul said he would come, and I hope he will.

ATENCIÓN: La forma contracta del auxiliar ‘had’ es también ‘d.

I’d heard it many times. = I had heard it many times.

7. ‘Could’ se utiliza como pasado de ‘can’ para expresar habilidad.
‘Would’ se utiliza en estilo indirecto como reporting verb de ‘will’
para expresar futuro.

When I was young, I could run for miles.
I will see my mother tomorrow
–> He said that he would see his mother the next day.

8. Nunca se usan dos modales juntos. Por ejemplo, no se puede decir
*”He will can come”. En su lugar se puede utilizar BE ABLE TO:

“He will be able to come”.

De la misma forma, tampoco podemos decir *”I will must go”. Pero
podemos utilizar HAVE TO:

“I will have to go”.

9. Los modales se pueden utilizar en question tags :

You won’t tell her, will you?
She can drive, can’t she?

Prohibición / Obligación / Ausencia de obligación / Permiso
Prohibición Obligación Ausencia de obligación Permiso

mustn’t
You mustn’t run in the corridor

must
You must be here on time

needn’t
You needn’t come tomorrow

can
You can use your book

can’t
You can’t use your dictionary in the exam

have (got) to
You have to wear a uniform
You’ve got to be quiet.

don’t have to
You don’t have to buy it

may
May I use your car?

may not
You may not use your mobile phone here

should
You should bring your book

haven’t got to
I haven’t got to do any homework

could
Could I take another biscuit?

shall not
You shall not leave without permission

ought to
It’s very cold. You ought to take a coat

didn’t need to
I didn’t need to take the bus because it was just across the road.

needn’t have +past participle
You needn’t have come (You came although it wasn’t necessary)

5
Habilidad o capacidad / Posibilidad o probabilidad / Certeza
/ Deducciones Habilidad o Capacidad Posibilidad o probabilidad Certeza Deducciones

can
I can speak French

can
The temperature in Jaén can reach 40ºC in July

will
Most of you will have heard of this.

must
You must be Tom’s father.

could
When I was younger I could play tennis quite well.

could
They could be friends

would
You would agree that changes

must be done
can’t
She can’t have left the party.

be able to
- I’ll be able to finish it on time.
- We were able to talk to the headteacher. (We actually talked to her)

may
It may rain

should
She should be sad living in Great Britain

must have + past participle
She must have forgotten

might
It might be true

shall
We shall be leaving as soon as we are ready.

can’t have + past participle
She can’t have finished yet

may have + past participle
She may have forgotten it

must have + past participle
I must have left my credit card in the bookshop (I’m sure I did)

might have + past participle
They might have arrived

could have + past participle
He could have killed her

6
Peticiones / Ofrecimientos / Sugerencias y consejos / Deseos
Peticiones Ofrecimientos Sugerencias y consejos Deseos

can
Can you help me?

can
Can I help you?

should
You should ask your teacher

would
I would like to know the answer.

could
Could I interrupt you?

may
May I help you?

ought to
She ought to be more careful

would rather
I would rather have left

will
Will you open the window, please?

shall
Shall I close the door?

could
We could go to the cinema.

would sooner
I’d sooner walk than go by bus

would you mind if
Would you mind If I used your car?

will
Will you have a cup of tea?

should have + past participle
She ought to have finished it.

would you mind + V-ing
Would you mind bringing some bread?

would
Would you like a drink?

shall
Shall we meet outside the bank?

should
Should I phone for a taxi for you?

can
You can take a taxi if you are tired

might
You might like to come with us

had better
You’d better leave now (we might have a quarrel)

http://webs.ono.com/lallena/ModalVerbs.html

_____________________________________________________________

Abbreviation Abreviatura, Abreviación
Abdication Abdicación
Acclamation Aclamación
Accumulation Acumulación
Administration Administración
Admiration Admiración
Adoration Adoración
Affirmation Afirmación
Agglomeration Aglomeración
Agitation Agitación
Allegation Alegación
Animation Animación
Anticipation Anticipación
Application Aplicación
Assassination *Asesinato
Assimilation Asimilación
Association Asociación
Authentication Autenticación
Authorization Autorización
Automation Automatización
Aviation Aviación
Celebration Celebración
Cessation Cesación
Circulation Circulación
Civilization Civilización
Classification Clasificación
Collaboration Colaboración
Combination Combinación
Commemoration Conmemoración
Commendation Recomendación
Communication Comunicación
Compensation Compensación
Compilation Compilación
Concentration Concentración
Condemnation Condenación
Condensation Condensación
Confirmation Confirmación
Confiscation Confiscación
Confrontation **Enfrentamiento
Congratulation Feliciatión
Congregation Congregación
Consideration Consideración
Consolation *Consuelo
Constellation Constelación
Consternation Consternación
Consultation Consultación
Contamination Contaminación
Contemplation Contemplación
Continuation Continuación
Conversation Conversación
Cooperation Cooperación
Coronation Coronación
Corporation Corporación
Correlation Correlación
Corroboration Corroboración
Creation Creación
Cultivation Cultivo*
Declaration Declaración
Degeneration Degeneración
Degradation Degradación
Delegation Delegación
Deliberation Deliberación
Delineation Delineación
Demonstration Demostración Manifestación (protest)
Deregulation Dereglamentación
Derivation Derivación
Derogation Detracción
Desecration Desecration
Desegregation Desegregation
Desolation Desolación
Destination Destino
Determination Determinación
Detestation *Aborrecimiento
Detonation Detonación
Dictation *Dictado
Differentiation Differentiation
Discrimination Discriminación
Disputation *disputa
Dissemination Diseminación
Documentation Documentación
Domestication Domestication
Domination Dominación
Donation Donación
Duration Duración
Education Educación
Ejaculation Eyaculación
Elaboration Elaboración
Elevation Elevación
Elimination Eliminación
Emancipation Emancipación
Emulation Emulación
Equation Ecuación
Evacuation Evacuación
Exaggeration Exageración
Examination *Examen
Exclamation Exclamación
Excommunication *Excomunión
Expectation *Expectativa
Experimentation Experimentación
Explanation Explicación
Exploration Exploración
Expostulation Expostulation
Extermination Exterminio
Exultation Exultation
Facilitation Facilitación
Fascination Fascinación
Federation Confederación
Fermentation Fermentación
Formation Formación
Formulation Fórmulación
Foundation Fundación
Generation Generación
Germination Germinación
Gratification Gratificación
Gravitation Gravitación
Hallucination *Alucinación
Hesitation Vacilación
Hibernation Hibernación
Humiliation Humillación
Identification Identificación
Illumination Iluminación
Illustration Ilustración
Imagination Imaginación
Imitation Imitación
Immigration Inmigración
Implication Implicación
Inclination Inclinación
Indentation Indentación
Indication Indicación
Indignation Indignación
Information Información
Initiation Iniciación
Innovation Innovación
Inoculation Inoculación
Insinuation Insinuación
Inspiration Inspiración
Installation Instalación
Instigation Provocación
Interpretation Interpretación
Intimation Intimación
Intonation Entonación
Inundation Inundación
Investigation Investigación (research)
Invitation Invitación
Invocation Invocación
Isolation Aislamiento
Justification Justificación
Lamentation Lamentación
Legislation Legislación
Limitation Limitación
Litigation Litigación
Location Ubicación
Maceration Maceración
Machination Maquinación
Manifestation Manifestación
Manipulation Manipulación
Mastication Masticación
Materialization Materialización
Meditation Mediación
Mineralisation Mineralisation
Moderation Moderación
Modification Modificación
Mutilation Mutilación
Narration Narración
Nation Nación
Naturalization Naturalización
Obligation Obligación
Observation Observación
Occupation Ocupación
Operation Operación
Organization Organización
Orientation Orientación
Ovation Ovación
Overpopulation *Superpoblación
Participation Participación
Penetration Penetración
Perspiration *Transpiración
Perturbation Perturbación
Population *Población
Precipitation Precipitación
Predestination Predestinación
Premeditation Premeditación
Preparation Preparación
Presentation Presentación
Preservation **Conservación
Privation Privación
Proliferation Proliferación
Prolongation Prolongación
Pronunciation Pronunciación
Propagation Propagación
Provocation Provocación
Publication Publicación
Punctuation Puntuación
Qualification **Cualificación
Realization Realización
Recitation Recitación
Reconciliation Conciliación
Recreation Recreación
Rectification Rectificación
Registration Inscripción
Regulation Regulación
Rehabilitation Rehabilitación
Relation Relación
Renunciation Renunciación
Reorganization Reorganización
Representation Representación
Reprobation Reprobation
Reputation Reputación
Respiration Respiración
Restoration Restauración
Retaliation Retaliación Represalia
Revelation Revelación
Salutation Salutación
Salvation Salvación
Segregation Segregación
Sensation Sensación
Separation Separación
Signification Significación
Simulation Simulación
Situation Situación
Sophistication Sofisticación
Speculation Especulación
Stagnation *Estancación Estancamiento
Starvation **Inanición
Station Estación
Stipulation Estipulación
Temptation *Tentación
Toleration Tolerancia
Transfiguration Transfiguración
Transformation Transformación
Translation *Traducción
Transportation Transportación
Tribulation Tribulación
Trituration Trituration
Vacation Vacación
Vegetation Vegetación
Veneration Veneración
Ventilation Ventilación
Verification Verificación
Violation Violación (usually means rape in Spanish)
Vocation Vocación

THE 100 MOST USED VERBS IN ENGLISH

accept
allow
ask
believe
borrow
break
bring
buy
can/be able
cancel
change
clean
comb
complain
cough
count
cut
dance
draw
drink
drive
eat
explain
fall
fill
find
finish
fit
fix
fly
forget
give
go
have
hear
hurt
know
learn
leave
listen
live
look
lose
make/do
need
open

________________________________________________________________________

close/shut
organize
pay
play
put
rain
read
reply
run
say
see
sell
send
sign
sing
sit
sleep
smoke
speak
spell
spend
stand
start/begin
study
succeed
swim
take
talk
teach
tell
think
translate
travel
try
turn off
turn on
type
understand
use
wait
wake up
want
watch
work
worry
write
_____________________________________________________
Infinitive Simple Past Past Participle Spanish
answer answered answered responder
arrive arrived arrived llegar
ask asked asked preguntar
be i was / were been ser
borrow borrowed borrowed tomar prestado
break i broke broken romper
buy i bought bought comprar
catch i caught caught atrapar
clean cleaned cleaned limpiar
climb climbed climbed escalar
collect collected collected colleccionar
come i came come venir
compose composed composed componer
cook cooked cooked cocinar
cut i cut cut cortar
dance danced danced bailar
describe described described describir
discover discovered discovered descubrir
do i did done hacer
drink i drank drunk beber
drive i drove driven conducir
eat i ate eaten comer
enjoy enjoyed enjoyed disfrutar
fall i fell fallen caer
feel i felt felt sentir
find i found found encontrar
fly i flew flown volar
forget i forgot forgotten olvidar
give i gave given dar
go i went gone ir
happen happened happened suceder
have i had had tener
help helped helped ayudar
hurt i hurt hurt herir, doler
invent invented invented inventar
invite invited invited invitar
kill killed killed matar
know i knew known saber
lend i lent lent prestar
leave i left left dejar
lie i lay lain yacer
like liked liked gustar
live lived lived vivir
look looked looked mirar
love loved loved amar
make i made made hacer
meet i met met conocer, encontrar
miss missed missed perder, extrañar
open opened opened abrir
pack packed packed empacar
pay i paid paid pagar
phone phoned phoned llamar por teléfono
play played played jugar
prefer preferred preferred preferir
prepare prepared prepared preparar
push pushed pushed empujar
put i put put poner
rain rained rained llover
read i read read leer
remember remembered remembered recordar
rent rented rented alquilar
rescue rescued rescued rescatar
return returned returned volver, devolver
ring i rang rung llamar por teléfono
save saved saved ahorrar
say i said said decir
search searched searched buscar
see i saw seen ver
sell i sold sold vender
sit i sat sat sentarse
skate skated skated patinar
ski skied skied esquiar
sleep i slept slept dormir
smell smelled smelled oler
speak i spoke spoken hablar
spend i spent spent gastar
start started started comenzar
stay stayed stayed quedarse
stop stopped stopped detener
study studied studied estudiar
survive survived survived sobrevivir
swim i swam swum nadar
take i took taken tomar
talk talked talked hablar
teach i taught taught enseñar
tell i told told decir
think i thought thought pensar
throw i threw thrown lanzar
touch touched touched tocar
try tried tried intentar
understand i understood understood entender
use used used usar
visit visited visited visitar
wait waited waited esperar
walk walked walked caminar
want wanted wanted querer
wash washed washed lavar
watch watched watched mirar
wear i wore worn llevar puesto
work worked worked trabajar
write i wrote written escribir

_________________________________________________________________________

Infinitive Simple Past Past Participle Spanish
add added added agregar
answer answered answered responder
apologise apologised apologised disculparse
arrest arrested arrested arrestar
arrive arrived arrived llegar
ask asked asked preguntar
attack attacked attacked atacar
be i was / were been ser
become i became become convertirse
begin i began begun comenzar
believe believed believed creer
boil boiled boiled hervir
book booked booked reservar
borrow borrowed borrowed tomar prestado
break i broke broken romper
bring i brought brought traer
build i built built construir
buy i bought bought comprar
catch i caught caught atrapar
carry carried carried llevar
change changed changed cambiar
chop chopped chopped picar
clean cleaned cleaned limpiar
climb climbed climbed escalar
collect collected collected colleccionar
come i came come venir
compose composed composed componer
cook cooked cooked cocinar
copy copied copied copiar
cut i cut cut cortar
dance danced danced bailar
describe described described describir
destroy destroyed destroyed destruir
die died died morir
discover discovered discovered descubrir
discuss discussed discussed discutir
do i did done hacer
draw i drew drawn dibujar
dream i dreamt/dreamed dreamt/dreamed soñar
drink i drank drunk beber
drive i drove driven conducir
dye dyed dyed teñir
eat i ate eaten comer
enjoy enjoyed enjoyed disfrutar
explode exploded exploded explotar
extinguish extinguished extinguished extinguirse
fall i fell fallen caer
feed i fed fed alimentar
feel i felt felt sentir
fight i fought fought pelear
find i found found encontrar
fly i flew flown volar
forget i forgot forgotten olvidar
freeze i froze frozen congelar
fry fried fried freír
give i gave given dar
go i went gone ir
grow i grew grown crecer
happen happened happened suceder
hate hated hated odiar
have i had had tener
hear i heard heard oír
help helped helped ayudar
hire hired hired alquilar
hope hoped hoped esperar
hunt hunted hunted cazar
hurt i hurt hurt herir, doler
imagine imagined imagined imaginar
invent invented invented inventar
invite invited invited invitar
jump jumped jumped saltar
keep i kept kept guardar
kill killed killed matar
know i knew known saber
leave i left left dejar
lend i lent lent prestar
lie i lay lain yacer
lie lied lied mentir
lift lifted lifted levantar
like liked liked gustar
listen listened listened escuchar
live lived lived vivir
look looked looked mirar
lose i lost lost perder
love loved loved amar
make i made made hacer
meet i met met conocer, encontrar
miss missed missed perder, extrañar
offer offered offered ofrecer
open opened opened abrir
pack packed packed empacar
pass passed passed pasar, aprobar
pay i paid paid pagar
peel peeled peeled pelar
phone phoned phoned llamar por teléfono
plan planned planned planificar
play played played jugar
pour poured poured verter
prefer preferred preferred preferir
prepare prepared prepared preparar
push pushed pushed empujar
put i put put poner
rain rained rained llover
read i read read leer
reduce reduced reduced reducir
remember remembered remembered recordar
rent rented rented alquilar
rescue rescued rescued rescatar
return returned returned volver, devolver
ring i rang rung llamar por teléfono
run i ran run correr
save saved saved ahorrar
say i said said decir
search searched searched buscar
send i sent sent enviar
scream screamed screamed gritar
see i saw seen ver
sell i sold sold vender
shine i shone shone brillar
shoot i shot shot disparar
shut i shut shut cerrar
sing i sang sung cantar
sit i sat sat sentarse
skate skated skated patinar
ski skied skied esquiar
sleep i slept slept dormir
smell smelled smelled oler
snore snored snored roncar
speak i spoke spoken hablar
spend i spent spent gastar
start started started comenzar
stay stayed stayed quedarse
steal i stole stolen robar
stop stopped stopped detener
study studied studied estudiar
survive survived survived sobrevivir
swim i swam swum nadar
take i took taken tomar
talk talked talked hablar
teach i taught taught enseñar
tell i told told decir
thank thanked thanked agradecer
think i thought thought pensar
throw i threw thrown lanzar
touch touched touched tocar
try tried tried intentar
use used used usar
understand i understood understood entender
visit visited visited visitar
wait waited waited esperar
walk walked walked caminar
want wanted wanted querer
warn warned warned advertir
wash washed washed lavar
watch watched watched mirar
wear i wore worn llevar puesto
win i won won ganar
work worked worked trabajar
write i wrote written escribir

_____________________________________________________________

Verbos modales

Los verbos modales realizan una función similar a la de los verbos
auxiliares. Dan información adicional sobre el verbo que los sigue y se
utilizan para indicar posibilidad, probabilidad, certeza, deducción,
capacidad, consejo, obligación, prohibición, permiso, hacer peticiones,
ofrecimientos, sugerencias, etc.

Son verbos modales: can, could, may, might, must, ought to, shall,
should, will y would.

Los verbos modales tienen algunas características que los diferencian de los verbos normales:
1. Los modales van seguidos siempre de un verbo en infinitivo:

She must leave in a few minutes.
I think it will look rather nice.
Things might have been so different.
People may be watching.
She ought to go straight back to England.
My sister can’t drive yet.
You could be right.
Shall we go out for a meal tonight?
You should study harder.
Would you finish this for me?

2. Los modales sólo tienen una forma. No añaden ‘-s’ a la tercera
persona del singular del presente y no tienen formas acabadas en ‘-
ing’ o en ‘-ed’. Tampoco tienen infinitivo.

There’s nothing I can do about it.
I’m sure he can do it.
2

3. Los verbos modales no necesitan el auxiliar DO para la forma
negativa ni para las preguntas. Para la forma negativa de un modal
simplemente añadimos NOT o una palabra negativa inmediatamente
detrás del modal.

You must not worry.
I can never remember his name.
‘Can + not’ se escribe siembre como una palabra, ‘cannot’.
I cannot go back. = I can’t go back.

En inglés hablado o escrito informal ‘not’ se contrae en ‘-n’t’ y se
añade al modal:

could not -> couldn’t We couldn’t leave the farm.
should not -> shouldn’t You shouldn’t talk like that.
must not -> mustn’t You mustn’t talk about Ron like that.
would not -> wouldn’t I wouldn’t do it if I were you.

Las siguientes formas contractas son irregulares:

shall not -> shan’t I shan’t let you go.

will not -> won’t Won’t you change your mind?

cannot -> can’t We can’t stop now.

‘Might not’ y ‘ought not’ se contraen a veces en ‘mightn’t’ y

‘oughtn’t’. Sin embargo, es muy raro que ‘may not’ aparezca como
‘mayn’t’ en inglés moderno.

Para hacer una pregunta, se pone el modal delante del sujeto.

Could you give me an example?
Will you be coming in later?
Shall I shut the door?

4. La mayoría de los verbos modales no se pueden utilizar en tiempos
de pasado o futuro. Por ejemplo, no podemos decir

*She will can come with me.

Tampoco es correcto *We musted study a lot.

Cuando nos referimos al pasado, utilizamos un modal seguido de ‘have’ y un
participio pasado:

They may have seen the film – Puede que hayan visto la película

5. Los modales no indican normalmente el tiempo en que ocurre
algo. Sin embargo, ‘shall’ y ‘will’ indican a menudo un hecho o una
situación futura.

I shall do what you suggested.
He will not return for many hours.

6. En inglés hablado y en inglés escrito informal, ‘shall’ y ‘will’ se
utilizan en forma contracta como ‘ll. ‘Would’ se contrae en ‘d.

I’ll see you tomorrow.
I hope you’ll agree.
Mary said she’d love to stay.

‘Shall’, ‘will’ y ‘would’ no se contraen cuando van al final de una
oración.
Paul said he would come, and I hope he will.

ATENCIÓN: La forma contracta del auxiliar ‘had’ es también ‘d.

I’d heard it many times. = I had heard it many times.

7. ‘Could’ se utiliza como pasado de ‘can’ para expresar habilidad.
‘Would’ se utiliza en estilo indirecto como reporting verb de ‘will’
para expresar futuro.

When I was young, I could run for miles.
I will see my mother tomorrow
–> He said that he would see his mother the next day.

8. Nunca se usan dos modales juntos. Por ejemplo, no se puede decir
*”He will can come”. En su lugar se puede utilizar BE ABLE TO:

“He will be able to come”.

De la misma forma, tampoco podemos decir *”I will must go”. Pero
podemos utilizar HAVE TO:

“I will have to go”.

9. Los modales se pueden utilizar en question tags :

You won’t tell her, will you?
She can drive, can’t she?

Prohibición / Obligación / Ausencia de obligación / Permiso
Prohibición Obligación Ausencia de obligación Permiso

mustn’t
You mustn’t run in the corridor

must
You must be here on time

needn’t
You needn’t come tomorrow

can
You can use your book

can’t
You can’t use your dictionary in the exam

have (got) to
You have to wear a uniform
You’ve got to be quiet.

don’t have to
You don’t have to buy it

may
May I use your car?

may not
You may not use your mobile phone here

should
You should bring your book

haven’t got to
I haven’t got to do any homework

could
Could I take another biscuit?

shall not
You shall not leave without permission

ought to
It’s very cold. You ought to take a coat

didn’t need to
I didn’t need to take the bus because it was just across the road.

needn’t have +past participle
You needn’t have come (You came although it wasn’t necessary)

5
Habilidad o capacidad / Posibilidad o probabilidad / Certeza
/ Deducciones Habilidad o Capacidad Posibilidad o probabilidad Certeza Deducciones

can
I can speak French

can
The temperature in Jaén can reach 40ºC in July

will
Most of you will have heard of this.

must
You must be Tom’s father.

could
When I was younger I could play tennis quite well.

could
They could be friends

would
You would agree that changes

must be done
can’t
She can’t have left the party.

be able to
- I’ll be able to finish it on time.
- We were able to talk to the headteacher. (We actually talked to her)

may
It may rain

should
She should be sad living in Great Britain

must have + past participle
She must have forgotten

might
It might be true

shall
We shall be leaving as soon as we are ready.

can’t have + past participle
She can’t have finished yet

may have + past participle
She may have forgotten it

must have + past participle
I must have left my credit card in the bookshop (I’m sure I did)

might have + past participle
They might have arrived

could have + past participle
He could have killed her

6
Peticiones / Ofrecimientos / Sugerencias y consejos / Deseos
Peticiones Ofrecimientos Sugerencias y consejos Deseos

can
Can you help me?

can
Can I help you?

should
You should ask your teacher

would
I would like to know the answer.

could
Could I interrupt you?

may
May I help you?

ought to
She ought to be more careful

would rather
I would rather have left

will
Will you open the window, please?

shall
Shall I close the door?

could
We could go to the cinema.

would sooner
I’d sooner walk than go by bus

would you mind if
Would you mind If I used your car?

will
Will you have a cup of tea?

should have + past participle
She ought to have finished it.

would you mind + V-ing
Would you mind bringing some bread?

would
Would you like a drink?

shall
Shall we meet outside the bank?

should
Should I phone for a taxi for you?

can
You can take a taxi if you are tired

might
You might like to come with us

had better
You’d better leave now (we might have a quarrel)

http://webs.ono.com/lallena/ModalVerbs.html

_____________________________________________________________

Abbreviation Abreviatura, Abreviación
Abdication Abdicación
Acclamation Aclamación
Accumulation Acumulación
Administration Administración
Admiration Admiración
Adoration Adoración
Affirmation Afirmación
Agglomeration Aglomeración
Agitation Agitación
Allegation Alegación
Animation Animación
Anticipation Anticipación
Application Aplicación
Assassination *Asesinato
Assimilation Asimilación
Association Asociación
Authentication Autenticación
Authorization Autorización
Automation Automatización
Aviation Aviación
Celebration Celebración
Cessation Cesación
Circulation Circulación
Civilization Civilización
Classification Clasificación
Collaboration Colaboración
Combination Combinación
Commemoration Conmemoración
Commendation Recomendación
Communication Comunicación
Compensation Compensación
Compilation Compilación
Concentration Concentración
Condemnation Condenación
Condensation Condensación
Confirmation Confirmación
Confiscation Confiscación
Confrontation **Enfrentamiento
Congratulation Feliciatión
Congregation Congregación
Consideration Consideración
Consolation *Consuelo
Constellation Constelación
Consternation Consternación
Consultation Consultación
Contamination Contaminación
Contemplation Contemplación
Continuation Continuación
Conversation Conversación
Cooperation Cooperación
Coronation Coronación
Corporation Corporación
Correlation Correlación
Corroboration Corroboración
Creation Creación
Cultivation Cultivo*
Declaration Declaración
Degeneration Degeneración
Degradation Degradación
Delegation Delegación
Deliberation Deliberación
Delineation Delineación
Demonstration Demostración Manifestación (protest)
Deregulation Dereglamentación
Derivation Derivación
Derogation Detracción
Desecration Desecration
Desegregation Desegregation
Desolation Desolación
Destination Destino
Determination Determinación
Detestation *Aborrecimiento
Detonation Detonación
Dictation *Dictado
Differentiation Differentiation
Discrimination Discriminación
Disputation *disputa
Dissemination Diseminación
Documentation Documentación
Domestication Domestication
Domination Dominación
Donation Donación
Duration Duración
Education Educación
Ejaculation Eyaculación
Elaboration Elaboración
Elevation Elevación
Elimination Eliminación
Emancipation Emancipación
Emulation Emulación
Equation Ecuación
Evacuation Evacuación
Exaggeration Exageración
Examination *Examen
Exclamation Exclamación
Excommunication *Excomunión
Expectation *Expectativa
Experimentation Experimentación
Explanation Explicación
Exploration Exploración
Expostulation Expostulation
Extermination Exterminio
Exultation Exultation
Facilitation Facilitación
Fascination Fascinación
Federation Confederación
Fermentation Fermentación
Formation Formación
Formulation Fórmulación
Foundation Fundación
Generation Generación
Germination Germinación
Gratification Gratificación
Gravitation Gravitación
Hallucination *Alucinación
Hesitation Vacilación
Hibernation Hibernación
Humiliation Humillación
Identification Identificación
Illumination Iluminación
Illustration Ilustración
Imagination Imaginación
Imitation Imitación
Immigration Inmigración
Implication Implicación
Inclination Inclinación
Indentation Indentación
Indication Indicación
Indignation Indignación
Information Información
Initiation Iniciación
Innovation Innovación
Inoculation Inoculación
Insinuation Insinuación
Inspiration Inspiración
Installation Instalación
Instigation Provocación
Interpretation Interpretación
Intimation Intimación
Intonation Entonación
Inundation Inundación
Investigation Investigación (research)
Invitation Invitación
Invocation Invocación
Isolation Aislamiento
Justification Justificación
Lamentation Lamentación
Legislation Legislación
Limitation Limitación
Litigation Litigación
Location Ubicación
Maceration Maceración
Machination Maquinación
Manifestation Manifestación
Manipulation Manipulación
Mastication Masticación
Materialization Materialización
Meditation Mediación
Mineralisation Mineralisation
Moderation Moderación
Modification Modificación
Mutilation Mutilación
Narration Narración
Nation Nación
Naturalization Naturalización
Obligation Obligación
Observation Observación
Occupation Ocupación
Operation Operación
Organization Organización
Orientation Orientación
Ovation Ovación
Overpopulation *Superpoblación
Participation Participación
Penetration Penetración
Perspiration *Transpiración
Perturbation Perturbación
Population *Población
Precipitation Precipitación
Predestination Predestinación
Premeditation Premeditación
Preparation Preparación
Presentation Presentación
Preservation **Conservación
Privation Privación
Proliferation Proliferación
Prolongation Prolongación
Pronunciation Pronunciación
Propagation Propagación
Provocation Provocación
Publication Publicación
Punctuation Puntuación
Qualification **Cualificación
Realization Realización
Recitation Recitación
Reconciliation Conciliación
Recreation Recreación
Rectification Rectificación
Registration Inscripción
Regulation Regulación
Rehabilitation Rehabilitación
Relation Relación
Renunciation Renunciación
Reorganization Reorganización
Representation Representación
Reprobation Reprobation
Reputation Reputación
Respiration Respiración
Restoration Restauración
Retaliation Retaliación Represalia
Revelation Revelación
Salutation Salutación
Salvation Salvación
Segregation Segregación
Sensation Sensación
Separation Separación
Signification Significación
Simulation Simulación
Situation Situación
Sophistication Sofisticación
Speculation Especulación
Stagnation *Estancación Estancamiento
Starvation **Inanición
Station Estación
Stipulation Estipulación
Temptation *Tentación
Toleration Tolerancia
Transfiguration Transfiguración
Transformation Transformación
Translation *Traducción
Transportation Transportación
Tribulation Tribulación
Trituration Trituration
Vacation Vacación
Vegetation Vegetación
Veneration Veneración
Ventilation Ventilación
Verification Verificación
Violation Violación (usually means rape in Spanish)
Vocation Vocación

THE 100 MOST USED VERBS IN ENGLISH

accept
allow
ask
believe
borrow
break
bring
buy
can/be able
cancel
change
clean
comb
complain
cough
count
cut
dance
draw
drink
drive
eat
explain
fall
fill
find
finish
fit
fix
fly
forget
give
go
have
hear
hurt
know
learn
leave
listen
live
look
lose
make/do
need
open

________________________________________________________________________

close/shut
organize
pay
play
put
rain
read
reply
run
say
see
sell
send
sign
sing
sit
sleep
smoke
speak
spell
spend
stand
start/begin
study
succeed
swim
take
talk
teach
tell
think
translate
travel
try
turn off
turn on
type
understand
use
wait
wake up
want
watch
work
worry
write
_____________________________________________________
Infinitive Simple Past Past Participle Spanish
answer answered answered responder
arrive arrived arrived llegar
ask asked asked preguntar
be i was / were been ser
borrow borrowed borrowed tomar prestado
break i broke broken romper
buy i bought bought comprar
catch i caught caught atrapar
clean cleaned cleaned limpiar
climb climbed climbed escalar
collect collected collected colleccionar
come i came come venir
compose composed composed componer
cook cooked cooked cocinar
cut i cut cut cortar
dance danced danced bailar
describe described described describir
discover discovered discovered descubrir
do i did done hacer
drink i drank drunk beber
drive i drove driven conducir
eat i ate eaten comer
enjoy enjoyed enjoyed disfrutar
fall i fell fallen caer
feel i felt felt sentir
find i found found encontrar
fly i flew flown volar
forget i forgot forgotten olvidar
give i gave given dar
go i went gone ir
happen happened happened suceder
have i had had tener
help helped helped ayudar
hurt i hurt hurt herir, doler
invent invented invented inventar
invite invited invited invitar
kill killed killed matar
know i knew known saber
lend i lent lent prestar
leave i left left dejar
lie i lay lain yacer
like liked liked gustar
live lived lived vivir
look looked looked mirar
love loved loved amar
make i made made hacer
meet i met met conocer, encontrar
miss missed missed perder, extrañar
open opened opened abrir
pack packed packed empacar
pay i paid paid pagar
phone phoned phoned llamar por teléfono
play played played jugar
prefer preferred preferred preferir
prepare prepared prepared preparar
push pushed pushed empujar
put i put put poner
rain rained rained llover
read i read read leer
remember remembered remembered recordar
rent rented rented alquilar
rescue rescued rescued rescatar
return returned returned volver, devolver
ring i rang rung llamar por teléfono
save saved saved ahorrar
say i said said decir
search searched searched buscar
see i saw seen ver
sell i sold sold vender
sit i sat sat sentarse
skate skated skated patinar
ski skied skied esquiar
sleep i slept slept dormir
smell smelled smelled oler
speak i spoke spoken hablar
spend i spent spent gastar
start started started comenzar
stay stayed stayed quedarse
stop stopped stopped detener
study studied studied estudiar
survive survived survived sobrevivir
swim i swam swum nadar
take i took taken tomar
talk talked talked hablar
teach i taught taught enseñar
tell i told told decir
think i thought thought pensar
throw i threw thrown lanzar
touch touched touched tocar
try tried tried intentar
understand i understood understood entender
use used used usar
visit visited visited visitar
wait waited waited esperar
walk walked walked caminar
want wanted wanted querer
wash washed washed lavar
watch watched watched mirar
wear i wore worn llevar puesto
work worked worked trabajar
write i wrote written escribir

_________________________________________________________________________

Infinitive Simple Past Past Participle Spanish
add added added agregar
answer answered answered responder
apologise apologised apologised disculparse
arrest arrested arrested arrestar
arrive arrived arrived llegar
ask asked asked preguntar
attack attacked attacked atacar
be i was / were been ser
become i became become convertirse
begin i began begun comenzar
believe believed believed creer
boil boiled boiled hervir
book booked booked reservar
borrow borrowed borrowed tomar prestado
break i broke broken romper
bring i brought brought traer
build i built built construir
buy i bought bought comprar
catch i caught caught atrapar
carry carried carried llevar
change changed changed cambiar
chop chopped chopped picar
clean cleaned cleaned limpiar
climb climbed climbed escalar
collect collected collected colleccionar
come i came come venir
compose composed composed componer
cook cooked cooked cocinar
copy copied copied copiar
cut i cut cut cortar
dance danced danced bailar
describe described described describir
destroy destroyed destroyed destruir
die died died morir
discover discovered discovered descubrir
discuss discussed discussed discutir
do i did done hacer
draw i drew drawn dibujar
dream i dreamt/dreamed dreamt/dreamed soñar
drink i drank drunk beber
drive i drove driven conducir
dye dyed dyed teñir
eat i ate eaten comer
enjoy enjoyed enjoyed disfrutar
explode exploded exploded explotar
extinguish extinguished extinguished extinguirse
fall i fell fallen caer
feed i fed fed alimentar
feel i felt felt sentir
fight i fought fought pelear
find i found found encontrar
fly i flew flown volar
forget i forgot forgotten olvidar
freeze i froze frozen congelar
fry fried fried freír
give i gave given dar
go i went gone ir
grow i grew grown crecer
happen happened happened suceder
hate hated hated odiar
have i had had tener
hear i heard heard oír
help helped helped ayudar
hire hired hired alquilar
hope hoped hoped esperar
hunt hunted hunted cazar
hurt i hurt hurt herir, doler
imagine imagined imagined imaginar
invent invented invented inventar
invite invited invited invitar
jump jumped jumped saltar
keep i kept kept guardar
kill killed killed matar
know i knew known saber
leave i left left dejar
lend i lent lent prestar
lie i lay lain yacer
lie lied lied mentir
lift lifted lifted levantar
like liked liked gustar
listen listened listened escuchar
live lived lived vivir
look looked looked mirar
lose i lost lost perder
love loved loved amar
make i made made hacer
meet i met met conocer, encontrar
miss missed missed perder, extrañar
offer offered offered ofrecer
open opened opened abrir
pack packed packed empacar
pass passed passed pasar, aprobar
pay i paid paid pagar
peel peeled peeled pelar
phone phoned phoned llamar por teléfono
plan planned planned planificar
play played played jugar
pour poured poured verter
prefer preferred preferred preferir
prepare prepared prepared preparar
push pushed pushed empujar
put i put put poner
rain rained rained llover
read i read read leer
reduce reduced reduced reducir
remember remembered remembered recordar
rent rented rented alquilar
rescue rescued rescued rescatar
return returned returned volver, devolver
ring i rang rung llamar por teléfono
run i ran run correr
save saved saved ahorrar
say i said said decir
search searched searched buscar
send i sent sent enviar
scream screamed screamed gritar
see i saw seen ver
sell i sold sold vender
shine i shone shone brillar
shoot i shot shot disparar
shut i shut shut cerrar
sing i sang sung cantar
sit i sat sat sentarse
skate skated skated patinar
ski skied skied esquiar
sleep i slept slept dormir
smell smelled smelled oler
snore snored snored roncar
speak i spoke spoken hablar
spend i spent spent gastar
start started started comenzar
stay stayed stayed quedarse
steal i stole stolen robar
stop stopped stopped detener
study studied studied estudiar
survive survived survived sobrevivir
swim i swam swum nadar
take i took taken tomar
talk talked talked hablar
teach i taught taught enseñar
tell i told told decir
thank thanked thanked agradecer
think i thought thought pensar
throw i threw thrown lanzar
touch touched touched tocar
try tried tried intentar
use used used usar
understand i understood understood entender
visit visited visited visitar
wait waited waited esperar
walk walked walked caminar
want wanted wanted querer
warn warned warned advertir
wash washed washed lavar
watch watched watched mirar
wear i wore worn llevar puesto
win i won won ganar
work worked worked trabajar
write i wrote written escribir

_____________________________________________________________

Verbos modales

Los verbos modales realizan una función similar a la de los verbos
auxiliares. Dan información adicional sobre el verbo que los sigue y se
utilizan para indicar posibilidad, probabilidad, certeza, deducción,
capacidad, consejo, obligación, prohibición, permiso, hacer peticiones,
ofrecimientos, sugerencias, etc.

Son verbos modales: can, could, may, might, must, ought to, shall,
should, will y would.

Los verbos modales tienen algunas características que los diferencian de los verbos normales:
1. Los modales van seguidos siempre de un verbo en infinitivo:

She must leave in a few minutes.
I think it will look rather nice.
Things might have been so different.
People may be watching.
She ought to go straight back to England.
My sister can’t drive yet.
You could be right.
Shall we go out for a meal tonight?
You should study harder.
Would you finish this for me?

2. Los modales sólo tienen una forma. No añaden ‘-s’ a la tercera
persona del singular del presente y no tienen formas acabadas en ‘-
ing’ o en ‘-ed’. Tampoco tienen infinitivo.

There’s nothing I can do about it.
I’m sure he can do it.
2

3. Los verbos modales no necesitan el auxiliar DO para la forma
negativa ni para las preguntas. Para la forma negativa de un modal
simplemente añadimos NOT o una palabra negativa inmediatamente
detrás del modal.

You must not worry.
I can never remember his name.
‘Can + not’ se escribe siembre como una palabra, ‘cannot’.
I cannot go back. = I can’t go back.

En inglés hablado o escrito informal ‘not’ se contrae en ‘-n’t’ y se
añade al modal:

could not -> couldn’t We couldn’t leave the farm.
should not -> shouldn’t You shouldn’t talk like that.
must not -> mustn’t You mustn’t talk about Ron like that.
would not -> wouldn’t I wouldn’t do it if I were you.

Las siguientes formas contractas son irregulares:

shall not -> shan’t I shan’t let you go.

will not -> won’t Won’t you change your mind?

cannot -> can’t We can’t stop now.

‘Might not’ y ‘ought not’ se contraen a veces en ‘mightn’t’ y

‘oughtn’t’. Sin embargo, es muy raro que ‘may not’ aparezca como
‘mayn’t’ en inglés moderno.

Para hacer una pregunta, se pone el modal delante del sujeto.

Could you give me an example?
Will you be coming in later?
Shall I shut the door?

4. La mayoría de los verbos modales no se pueden utilizar en tiempos
de pasado o futuro. Por ejemplo, no podemos decir

*She will can come with me.

Tampoco es correcto *We musted study a lot.

Cuando nos referimos al pasado, utilizamos un modal seguido de ‘have’ y un
participio pasado:

They may have seen the film – Puede que hayan visto la película

5. Los modales no indican normalmente el tiempo en que ocurre
algo. Sin embargo, ‘shall’ y ‘will’ indican a menudo un hecho o una
situación futura.

I shall do what you suggested.
He will not return for many hours.

6. En inglés hablado y en inglés escrito informal, ‘shall’ y ‘will’ se
utilizan en forma contracta como ‘ll. ‘Would’ se contrae en ‘d.

I’ll see you tomorrow.
I hope you’ll agree.
Mary said she’d love to stay.

‘Shall’, ‘will’ y ‘would’ no se contraen cuando van al final de una
oración.
Paul said he would come, and I hope he will.

ATENCIÓN: La forma contracta del auxiliar ‘had’ es también ‘d.

I’d heard it many times. = I had heard it many times.

7. ‘Could’ se utiliza como pasado de ‘can’ para expresar habilidad.
‘Would’ se utiliza en estilo indirecto como reporting verb de ‘will’
para expresar futuro.

When I was young, I could run for miles.
I will see my mother tomorrow
–> He said that he would see his mother the next day.

8. Nunca se usan dos modales juntos. Por ejemplo, no se puede decir
*”He will can come”. En su lugar se puede utilizar BE ABLE TO:

“He will be able to come”.

De la misma forma, tampoco podemos decir *”I will must go”. Pero
podemos utilizar HAVE TO:

“I will have to go”.

9. Los modales se pueden utilizar en question tags :

You won’t tell her, will you?
She can drive, can’t she?

Prohibición / Obligación / Ausencia de obligación / Permiso
Prohibición Obligación Ausencia de obligación Permiso

mustn’t
You mustn’t run in the corridor

must
You must be here on time

needn’t
You needn’t come tomorrow

can
You can use your book

can’t
You can’t use your dictionary in the exam

have (got) to
You have to wear a uniform
You’ve got to be quiet.

don’t have to
You don’t have to buy it

may
May I use your car?

may not
You may not use your mobile phone here

should
You should bring your book

haven’t got to
I haven’t got to do any homework

could
Could I take another biscuit?

shall not
You shall not leave without permission

ought to
It’s very cold. You ought to take a coat

didn’t need to
I didn’t need to take the bus because it was just across the road.

needn’t have +past participle
You needn’t have come (You came although it wasn’t necessary)

5
Habilidad o capacidad / Posibilidad o probabilidad / Certeza
/ Deducciones Habilidad o Capacidad Posibilidad o probabilidad Certeza Deducciones

can
I can speak French

can
The temperature in Jaén can reach 40ºC in July

will
Most of you will have heard of this.

must
You must be Tom’s father.

could
When I was younger I could play tennis quite well.

could
They could be friends

would
You would agree that changes

must be done
can’t
She can’t have left the party.

be able to
- I’ll be able to finish it on time.
- We were able to talk to the headteacher. (We actually talked to her)

may
It may rain

should
She should be sad living in Great Britain

must have + past participle
She must have forgotten

might
It might be true

shall
We shall be leaving as soon as we are ready.

can’t have + past participle
She can’t have finished yet

may have + past participle
She may have forgotten it

must have + past participle
I must have left my credit card in the bookshop (I’m sure I did)

might have + past participle
They might have arrived

could have + past participle
He could have killed her

6
Peticiones / Ofrecimientos / Sugerencias y consejos / Deseos
Peticiones Ofrecimientos Sugerencias y consejos Deseos

can
Can you help me?

can
Can I help you?

should
You should ask your teacher

would
I would like to know the answer.

could
Could I interrupt you?

may
May I help you?

ought to
She ought to be more careful

would rather
I would rather have left

will
Will you open the window, please?

shall
Shall I close the door?

could
We could go to the cinema.

would sooner
I’d sooner walk than go by bus

would you mind if
Would you mind If I used your car?

will
Will you have a cup of tea?

should have + past participle
She ought to have finished it.

would you mind + V-ing
Would you mind bringing some bread?

would
Would you like a drink?

shall
Shall we meet outside the bank?

should
Should I phone for a taxi for you?

can
You can take a taxi if you are tired

might
You might like to come with us

had better
You’d better leave now (we might have a quarrel)

http://webs.ono.com/lallena/ModalVerbs.html

_____________________________________________________________

Abbreviation Abreviatura, Abreviación
Abdication Abdicación
Acclamation Aclamación
Accumulation Acumulación
Administration Administración
Admiration Admiración
Adoration Adoración
Affirmation Afirmación
Agglomeration Aglomeración
Agitation Agitación
Allegation Alegación
Animation Animación
Anticipation Anticipación
Application Aplicación
Assassination *Asesinato
Assimilation Asimilación
Association Asociación
Authentication Autenticación
Authorization Autorización
Automation Automatización
Aviation Aviación
Celebration Celebración
Cessation Cesación
Circulation Circulación
Civilization Civilización
Classification Clasificación
Collaboration Colaboración
Combination Combinación
Commemoration Conmemoración
Commendation Recomendación
Communication Comunicación
Compensation Compensación
Compilation Compilación
Concentration Concentración
Condemnation Condenación
Condensation Condensación
Confirmation Confirmación
Confiscation Confiscación
Confrontation **Enfrentamiento
Congratulation Feliciatión
Congregation Congregación
Consideration Consideración
Consolation *Consuelo
Constellation Constelación
Consternation Consternación
Consultation Consultación
Contamination Contaminación
Contemplation Contemplación
Continuation Continuación
Conversation Conversación
Cooperation Cooperación
Coronation Coronación
Corporation Corporación
Correlation Correlación
Corroboration Corroboración
Creation Creación
Cultivation Cultivo*
Declaration Declaración
Degeneration Degeneración
Degradation Degradación
Delegation Delegación
Deliberation Deliberación
Delineation Delineación
Demonstration Demostración Manifestación (protest)
Deregulation Dereglamentación
Derivation Derivación
Derogation Detracción
Desecration Desecration
Desegregation Desegregation
Desolation Desolación
Destination Destino
Determination Determinación
Detestation *Aborrecimiento
Detonation Detonación
Dictation *Dictado
Differentiation Differentiation
Discrimination Discriminación
Disputation *disputa
Dissemination Diseminación
Documentation Documentación
Domestication Domestication
Domination Dominación
Donation Donación
Duration Duración
Education Educación
Ejaculation Eyaculación
Elaboration Elaboración
Elevation Elevación
Elimination Eliminación
Emancipation Emancipación
Emulation Emulación
Equation Ecuación
Evacuation Evacuación
Exaggeration Exageración
Examination *Examen
Exclamation Exclamación
Excommunication *Excomunión
Expectation *Expectativa
Experimentation Experimentación
Explanation Explicación
Exploration Exploración
Expostulation Expostulation
Extermination Exterminio
Exultation Exultation
Facilitation Facilitación
Fascination Fascinación
Federation Confederación
Fermentation Fermentación
Formation Formación
Formulation Fórmulación
Foundation Fundación
Generation Generación
Germination Germinación
Gratification Gratificación
Gravitation Gravitación
Hallucination *Alucinación
Hesitation Vacilación
Hibernation Hibernación
Humiliation Humillación
Identification Identificación
Illumination Iluminación
Illustration Ilustración
Imagination Imaginación
Imitation Imitación
Immigration Inmigración
Implication Implicación
Inclination Inclinación
Indentation Indentación
Indication Indicación
Indignation Indignación
Information Información
Initiation Iniciación
Innovation Innovación
Inoculation Inoculación
Insinuation Insinuación
Inspiration Inspiración
Installation Instalación
Instigation Provocación
Interpretation Interpretación
Intimation Intimación
Intonation Entonación
Inundation Inundación
Investigation Investigación (research)
Invitation Invitación
Invocation Invocación
Isolation Aislamiento
Justification Justificación
Lamentation Lamentación
Legislation Legislación
Limitation Limitación
Litigation Litigación
Location Ubicación
Maceration Maceración
Machination Maquinación
Manifestation Manifestación
Manipulation Manipulación
Mastication Masticación
Materialization Materialización
Meditation Mediación
Mineralisation Mineralisation
Moderation Moderación
Modification Modificación
Mutilation Mutilación
Narration Narración
Nation Nación
Naturalization Naturalización
Obligation Obligación
Observation Observación
Occupation Ocupación
Operation Operación
Organization Organización
Orientation Orientación
Ovation Ovación
Overpopulation *Superpoblación
Participation Participación
Penetration Penetración
Perspiration *Transpiración
Perturbation Perturbación
Population *Población
Precipitation Precipitación
Predestination Predestinación
Premeditation Premeditación
Preparation Preparación
Presentation Presentación
Preservation **Conservación
Privation Privación
Proliferation Proliferación
Prolongation Prolongación
Pronunciation Pronunciación
Propagation Propagación
Provocation Provocación
Publication Publicación
Punctuation Puntuación
Qualification **Cualificación
Realization Realización
Recitation Recitación
Reconciliation Conciliación
Recreation Recreación
Rectification Rectificación
Registration Inscripción
Regulation Regulación
Rehabilitation Rehabilitación
Relation Relación
Renunciation Renunciación
Reorganization Reorganización
Representation Representación
Reprobation Reprobation
Reputation Reputación
Respiration Respiración
Restoration Restauración
Retaliation Retaliación Represalia
Revelation Revelación
Salutation Salutación
Salvation Salvación
Segregation Segregación
Sensation Sensación
Separation Separación
Signification Significación
Simulation Simulación
Situation Situación
Sophistication Sofisticación
Speculation Especulación
Stagnation *Estancación Estancamiento
Starvation **Inanición
Station Estación
Stipulation Estipulación
Temptation *Tentación
Toleration Tolerancia
Transfiguration Transfiguración
Transformation Transformación
Translation *Traducción
Transportation Transportación
Tribulation Tribulación
Trituration Trituration
Vacation Vacación
Vegetation Vegetación
Veneration Veneración
Ventilation Ventilación
Verification Verificación
Violation Violación (usually means rape in Spanish)
Vocation Vocación

THE 100 MOST USED VERBS IN ENGLISH

accept
allow
ask
believe
borrow
break
bring
buy
can/be able
cancel
change
clean
comb
complain
cough
count
cut
dance
draw
drink
drive
eat
explain
fall
fill
find
finish
fit
fix
fly
forget
give
go
have
hear
hurt
know
learn
leave
listen
live
look
lose
make/do
need
open

________________________________________________________________________

close/shut
organize
pay
play
put
rain
read
reply
run
say
see
sell
send
sign
sing
sit
sleep
smoke
speak
spell
spend
stand
start/begin
study
succeed
swim
take
talk
teach
tell
think
translate
travel
try
turn off
turn on
type
understand
use
wait
wake up
want
watch
work
worry
write
_____________________________________________________
Infinitive Simple Past Past Participle Spanish
answer answered answered responder
arrive arrived arrived llegar
ask asked asked preguntar
be i was / were been ser
borrow borrowed borrowed tomar prestado
break i broke broken romper
buy i bought bought comprar
catch i caught caught atrapar
clean cleaned cleaned limpiar
climb climbed climbed escalar
collect collected collected colleccionar
come i came come venir
compose composed composed componer
cook cooked cooked cocinar
cut i cut cut cortar
dance danced danced bailar
describe described described describir
discover discovered discovered descubrir
do i did done hacer
drink i drank drunk beber
drive i drove driven conducir
eat i ate eaten comer
enjoy enjoyed enjoyed disfrutar
fall i fell fallen caer
feel i felt felt sentir
find i found found encontrar
fly i flew flown volar
forget i forgot forgotten olvidar
give i gave given dar
go i went gone ir
happen happened happened suceder
have i had had tener
help helped helped ayudar
hurt i hurt hurt herir, doler
invent invented invented inventar
invite invited invited invitar
kill killed killed matar
know i knew known saber
lend i lent lent prestar
leave i left left dejar
lie i lay lain yacer
like liked liked gustar
live lived lived vivir
look looked looked mirar
love loved loved amar
make i made made hacer
meet i met met conocer, encontrar
miss missed missed perder, extrañar
open opened opened abrir
pack packed packed empacar
pay i paid paid pagar
phone phoned phoned llamar por teléfono
play played played jugar
prefer preferred preferred preferir
prepare prepared prepared preparar
push pushed pushed empujar
put i put put poner
rain rained rained llover
read i read read leer
remember remembered remembered recordar
rent rented rented alquilar
rescue rescued rescued rescatar
return returned returned volver, devolver
ring i rang rung llamar por teléfono
save saved saved ahorrar
say i said said decir
search searched searched buscar
see i saw seen ver
sell i sold sold vender
sit i sat sat sentarse
skate skated skated patinar
ski skied skied esquiar
sleep i slept slept dormir
smell smelled smelled oler
speak i spoke spoken hablar
spend i spent spent gastar
start started started comenzar
stay stayed stayed quedarse
stop stopped stopped detener
study studied studied estudiar
survive survived survived sobrevivir
swim i swam swum nadar
take i took taken tomar
talk talked talked hablar
teach i taught taught enseñar
tell i told told decir
think i thought thought pensar
throw i threw thrown lanzar
touch touched touched tocar
try tried tried intentar
understand i understood understood entender
use used used usar
visit visited visited visitar
wait waited waited esperar
walk walked walked caminar
want wanted wanted querer
wash washed washed lavar
watch watched watched mirar
wear i wore worn llevar puesto
work worked worked trabajar
write i wrote written escribir

_________________________________________________________________________

Infinitive Simple Past Past Participle Spanish
add added added agregar
answer answered answered responder
apologise apologised apologised disculparse
arrest arrested arrested arrestar
arrive arrived arrived llegar
ask asked asked preguntar
attack attacked attacked atacar
be i was / were been ser
become i became become convertirse
begin i began begun comenzar
believe believed believed creer
boil boiled boiled hervir
book booked booked reservar
borrow borrowed borrowed tomar prestado
break i broke broken romper
bring i brought brought traer
build i built built construir
buy i bought bought comprar
catch i caught caught atrapar
carry carried carried llevar
change changed changed cambiar
chop chopped chopped picar
clean cleaned cleaned limpiar
climb climbed climbed escalar
collect collected collected colleccionar
come i came come venir
compose composed composed componer
cook cooked cooked cocinar
copy copied copied copiar
cut i cut cut cortar
dance danced danced bailar
describe described described describir
destroy destroyed destroyed destruir
die died died morir
discover discovered discovered descubrir
discuss discussed discussed discutir
do i did done hacer
draw i drew drawn dibujar
dream i dreamt/dreamed dreamt/dreamed soñar
drink i drank drunk beber
drive i drove driven conducir
dye dyed dyed teñir
eat i ate eaten comer
enjoy enjoyed enjoyed disfrutar
explode exploded exploded explotar
extinguish extinguished extinguished extinguirse
fall i fell fallen caer
feed i fed fed alimentar
feel i felt felt sentir
fight i fought fought pelear
find i found found encontrar
fly i flew flown volar
forget i forgot forgotten olvidar
freeze i froze frozen congelar
fry fried fried freír
give i gave given dar
go i went gone ir
grow i grew grown crecer
happen happened happened suceder
hate hated hated odiar
have i had had tener
hear i heard heard oír
help helped helped ayudar
hire hired hired alquilar
hope hoped hoped esperar
hunt hunted hunted cazar
hurt i hurt hurt herir, doler
imagine imagined imagined imaginar
invent invented invented inventar
invite invited invited invitar
jump jumped jumped saltar
keep i kept kept guardar
kill killed killed matar
know i knew known saber
leave i left left dejar
lend i lent lent prestar
lie i lay lain yacer
lie lied lied mentir
lift lifted lifted levantar
like liked liked gustar
listen listened listened escuchar
live lived lived vivir
look looked looked mirar
lose i lost lost perder
love loved loved amar
make i made made hacer
meet i met met conocer, encontrar
miss missed missed perder, extrañar
offer offered offered ofrecer
open opened opened abrir
pack packed packed empacar
pass passed passed pasar, aprobar
pay i paid paid pagar
peel peeled peeled pelar
phone phoned phoned llamar por teléfono
plan planned planned planificar
play played played jugar
pour poured poured verter
prefer preferred preferred preferir
prepare prepared prepared preparar
push pushed pushed empujar
put i put put poner
rain rained rained llover
read i read read leer
reduce reduced reduced reducir
remember remembered remembered recordar
rent rented rented alquilar
rescue rescued rescued rescatar
return returned returned volver, devolver
ring i rang rung llamar por teléfono
run i ran run correr
save saved saved ahorrar
say i said said decir
search searched searched buscar
send i sent sent enviar
scream screamed screamed gritar
see i saw seen ver
sell i sold sold vender
shine i shone shone brillar
shoot i shot shot disparar
shut i shut shut cerrar
sing i sang sung cantar
sit i sat sat sentarse
skate skated skated patinar
ski skied skied esquiar
sleep i slept slept dormir
smell smelled smelled oler
snore snored snored roncar
speak i spoke spoken hablar
spend i spent spent gastar
start started started comenzar
stay stayed stayed quedarse
steal i stole stolen robar
stop stopped stopped detener
study studied studied estudiar
survive survived survived sobrevivir
swim i swam swum nadar
take i took taken tomar
talk talked talked hablar
teach i taught taught enseñar
tell i told told decir
thank thanked thanked agradecer
think i thought thought pensar
throw i threw thrown lanzar
touch touched touched tocar
try tried tried intentar
use used used usar
understand i understood understood entender
visit visited visited visitar
wait waited waited esperar
walk walked walked caminar
want wanted wanted querer
warn warned warned advertir
wash washed washed lavar
watch watched watched mirar
wear i wore worn llevar puesto
win i won won ganar
work worked worked trabajar
write i wrote written escribir

_____________________________________________________________

Verbos modales

Los verbos modales realizan una función similar a la de los verbos
auxiliares. Dan información adicional sobre el verbo que los sigue y se
utilizan para indicar posibilidad, probabilidad, certeza, deducción,
capacidad, consejo, obligación, prohibición, permiso, hacer peticiones,
ofrecimientos, sugerencias, etc.

Son verbos modales: can, could, may, might, must, ought to, shall,
should, will y would.

Los verbos modales tienen algunas características que los diferencian de los verbos normales:
1. Los modales van seguidos siempre de un verbo en infinitivo:

She must leave in a few minutes.
I think it will look rather nice.
Things might have been so different.
People may be watching.
She ought to go straight back to England.
My sister can’t drive yet.
You could be right.
Shall we go out for a meal tonight?
You should study harder.
Would you finish this for me?

2. Los modales sólo tienen una forma. No añaden ‘-s’ a la tercera
persona del singular del presente y no tienen formas acabadas en ‘-
ing’ o en ‘-ed’. Tampoco tienen infinitivo.

There’s nothing I can do about it.
I’m sure he can do it.
2

3. Los verbos modales no necesitan el auxiliar DO para la forma
negativa ni para las preguntas. Para la forma negativa de un modal
simplemente añadimos NOT o una palabra negativa inmediatamente
detrás del modal.

You must not worry.
I can never remember his name.
‘Can + not’ se escribe siembre como una palabra, ‘cannot’.
I cannot go back. = I can’t go back.

En inglés hablado o escrito informal ‘not’ se contrae en ‘-n’t’ y se
añade al modal:

could not -> couldn’t We couldn’t leave the farm.
should not -> shouldn’t You shouldn’t talk like that.
must not -> mustn’t You mustn’t talk about Ron like that.
would not -> wouldn’t I wouldn’t do it if I were you.

Las siguientes formas contractas son irregulares:

shall not -> shan’t I shan’t let you go.

will not -> won’t Won’t you change your mind?

cannot -> can’t We can’t stop now.

‘Might not’ y ‘ought not’ se contraen a veces en ‘mightn’t’ y

‘oughtn’t’. Sin embargo, es muy raro que ‘may not’ aparezca como
‘mayn’t’ en inglés moderno.

Para hacer una pregunta, se pone el modal delante del sujeto.

Could you give me an example?
Will you be coming in later?
Shall I shut the door?

4. La mayoría de los verbos modales no se pueden utilizar en tiempos
de pasado o futuro. Por ejemplo, no podemos decir

*She will can come with me.

Tampoco es correcto *We musted study a lot.

Cuando nos referimos al pasado, utilizamos un modal seguido de ‘have’ y un
participio pasado:

They may have seen the film – Puede que hayan visto la película

5. Los modales no indican normalmente el tiempo en que ocurre
algo. Sin embargo, ‘shall’ y ‘will’ indican a menudo un hecho o una
situación futura.

I shall do what you suggested.
He will not return for many hours.

6. En inglés hablado y en inglés escrito informal, ‘shall’ y ‘will’ se
utilizan en forma contracta como ‘ll. ‘Would’ se contrae en ‘d.

I’ll see you tomorrow.
I hope you’ll agree.
Mary said she’d love to stay.

‘Shall’, ‘will’ y ‘would’ no se contraen cuando van al final de una
oración.
Paul said he would come, and I hope he will.

ATENCIÓN: La forma contracta del auxiliar ‘had’ es también ‘d.

I’d heard it many times. = I had heard it many times.

7. ‘Could’ se utiliza como pasado de ‘can’ para expresar habilidad.
‘Would’ se utiliza en estilo indirecto como reporting verb de ‘will’
para expresar futuro.

When I was young, I could run for miles.
I will see my mother tomorrow
–> He said that he would see his mother the next day.

8. Nunca se usan dos modales juntos. Por ejemplo, no se puede decir
*”He will can come”. En su lugar se puede utilizar BE ABLE TO:

“He will be able to come”.

De la misma forma, tampoco podemos decir *”I will must go”. Pero
podemos utilizar HAVE TO:

“I will have to go”.

9. Los modales se pueden utilizar en question tags :

You won’t tell her, will you?
She can drive, can’t she?

Prohibición / Obligación / Ausencia de obligación / Permiso
Prohibición Obligación Ausencia de obligación Permiso

mustn’t
You mustn’t run in the corridor

must
You must be here on time

needn’t
You needn’t come tomorrow

can
You can use your book

can’t
You can’t use your dictionary in the exam

have (got) to
You have to wear a uniform
You’ve got to be quiet.

don’t have to
You don’t have to buy it

may
May I use your car?

may not
You may not use your mobile phone here

should
You should bring your book

haven’t got to
I haven’t got to do any homework

could
Could I take another biscuit?

shall not
You shall not leave without permission

ought to
It’s very cold. You ought to take a coat

didn’t need to
I didn’t need to take the bus because it was just across the road.

needn’t have +past participle
You needn’t have come (You came although it wasn’t necessary)

5
Habilidad o capacidad / Posibilidad o probabilidad / Certeza
/ Deducciones Habilidad o Capacidad Posibilidad o probabilidad Certeza Deducciones

can
I can speak French

can
The temperature in Jaén can reach 40ºC in July

will
Most of you will have heard of this.

must
You must be Tom’s father.

could
When I was younger I could play tennis quite well.

could
They could be friends

would
You would agree that changes

must be done
can’t
She can’t have left the party.

be able to
- I’ll be able to finish it on time.
- We were able to talk to the headteacher. (We actually talked to her)

may
It may rain

should
She should be sad living in Great Britain

must have + past participle
She must have forgotten

might
It might be true

shall
We shall be leaving as soon as we are ready.

can’t have + past participle
She can’t have finished yet

may have + past participle
She may have forgotten it

must have + past participle
I must have left my credit card in the bookshop (I’m sure I did)

might have + past participle
They might have arrived

could have + past participle
He could have killed her

6
Peticiones / Ofrecimientos / Sugerencias y consejos / Deseos
Peticiones Ofrecimientos Sugerencias y consejos Deseos

can
Can you help me?

can
Can I help you?

should
You should ask your teacher

would
I would like to know the answer.

could
Could I interrupt you?

may
May I help you?

ought to
She ought to be more careful

would rather
I would rather have left

will
Will you open the window, please?

shall
Shall I close the door?

could
We could go to the cinema.

would sooner
I’d sooner walk than go by bus

would you mind if
Would you mind If I used your car?

will
Will you have a cup of tea?

should have + past participle
She ought to have finished it.

would you mind + V-ing
Would you mind bringing some bread?

would
Would you like a drink?

shall
Shall we meet outside the bank?

should
Should I phone for a taxi for you?

can
You can take a taxi if you are tired

might
You might like to come with us

had better
You’d better leave now (we might have a quarrel)

http://webs.ono.com/lallena/ModalVerbs.html

_____________________________________________________________

Abbreviation Abreviatura, Abreviación
Abdication Abdicación
Acclamation Aclamación
Accumulation Acumulación
Administration Administración
Admiration Admiración
Adoration Adoración
Affirmation Afirmación
Agglomeration Aglomeración
Agitation Agitación
Allegation Alegación
Animation Animación
Anticipation Anticipación
Application Aplicación
Assassination *Asesinato
Assimilation Asimilación
Association Asociación
Authentication Autenticación
Authorization Autorización
Automation Automatización
Aviation Aviación
Celebration Celebración
Cessation Cesación
Circulation Circulación
Civilization Civilización
Classification Clasificación
Collaboration Colaboración
Combination Combinación
Commemoration Conmemoración
Commendation Recomendación
Communication Comunicación
Compensation Compensación
Compilation Compilación
Concentration Concentración
Condemnation Condenación
Condensation Condensación
Confirmation Confirmación
Confiscation Confiscación
Confrontation **Enfrentamiento
Congratulation Feliciatión
Congregation Congregación
Consideration Consideración
Consolation *Consuelo
Constellation Constelación
Consternation Consternación
Consultation Consultación
Contamination Contaminación
Contemplation Contemplación
Continuation Continuación
Conversation Conversación
Cooperation Cooperación
Coronation Coronación
Corporation Corporación
Correlation Correlación
Corroboration Corroboración
Creation Creación
Cultivation Cultivo*
Declaration Declaración
Degeneration Degeneración
Degradation Degradación
Delegation Delegación
Deliberation Deliberación
Delineation Delineación
Demonstration Demostración Manifestación (protest)
Deregulation Dereglamentación
Derivation Derivación
Derogation Detracción
Desecration Desecration
Desegregation Desegregation
Desolation Desolación
Destination Destino
Determination Determinación
Detestation *Aborrecimiento
Detonation Detonación
Dictation *Dictado
Differentiation Differentiation
Discrimination Discriminación
Disputation *disputa
Dissemination Diseminación
Documentation Documentación
Domestication Domestication
Domination Dominación
Donation Donación
Duration Duración
Education Educación
Ejaculation Eyaculación
Elaboration Elaboración
Elevation Elevación
Elimination Eliminación
Emancipation Emancipación
Emulation Emulación
Equation Ecuación
Evacuation Evacuación
Exaggeration Exageración
Examination *Examen
Exclamation Exclamación
Excommunication *Excomunión
Expectation *Expectativa
Experimentation Experimentación
Explanation Explicación
Exploration Exploración
Expostulation Expostulation
Extermination Exterminio
Exultation Exultation
Facilitation Facilitación
Fascination Fascinación
Federation Confederación
Fermentation Fermentación
Formation Formación
Formulation Fórmulación
Foundation Fundación
Generation Generación
Germination Germinación
Gratification Gratificación
Gravitation Gravitación
Hallucination *Alucinación
Hesitation Vacilación
Hibernation Hibernación
Humiliation Humillación
Identification Identificación
Illumination Iluminación
Illustration Ilustración
Imagination Imaginación
Imitation Imitación
Immigration Inmigración
Implication Implicación
Inclination Inclinación
Indentation Indentación
Indication Indicación
Indignation Indignación
Information Información
Initiation Iniciación
Innovation Innovación
Inoculation Inoculación
Insinuation Insinuación
Inspiration Inspiración
Installation Instalación
Instigation Provocación
Interpretation Interpretación
Intimation Intimación
Intonation Entonación
Inundation Inundación
Investigation Investigación (research)
Invitation Invitación
Invocation Invocación
Isolation Aislamiento
Justification Justificación
Lamentation Lamentación
Legislation Legislación
Limitation Limitación
Litigation Litigación
Location Ubicación
Maceration Maceración
Machination Maquinación
Manifestation Manifestación
Manipulation Manipulación
Mastication Masticación
Materialization Materialización
Meditation Mediación
Mineralisation Mineralisation
Moderation Moderación
Modification Modificación
Mutilation Mutilación
Narration Narración
Nation Nación
Naturalization Naturalización
Obligation Obligación
Observation Observación
Occupation Ocupación
Operation Operación
Organization Organización
Orientation Orientación
Ovation Ovación
Overpopulation *Superpoblación
Participation Participación
Penetration Penetración
Perspiration *Transpiración
Perturbation Perturbación
Population *Población
Precipitation Precipitación
Predestination Predestinación
Premeditation Premeditación
Preparation Preparación
Presentation Presentación
Preservation **Conservación
Privation Privación
Proliferation Proliferación
Prolongation Prolongación
Pronunciation Pronunciación
Propagation Propagación
Provocation Provocación
Publication Publicación
Punctuation Puntuación
Qualification **Cualificación
Realization Realización
Recitation Recitación
Reconciliation Conciliación
Recreation Recreación
Rectification Rectificación
Registration Inscripción
Regulation Regulación
Rehabilitation Rehabilitación
Relation Relación
Renunciation Renunciación
Reorganization Reorganización
Representation Representación
Reprobation Reprobation
Reputation Reputación
Respiration Respiración
Restoration Restauración
Retaliation Retaliación Represalia
Revelation Revelación
Salutation Salutación
Salvation Salvación
Segregation Segregación
Sensation Sensación
Separation Separación
Signification Significación
Simulation Simulación
Situation Situación
Sophistication Sofisticación
Speculation Especulación
Stagnation *Estancación Estancamiento
Starvation **Inanición
Station Estación
Stipulation Estipulación
Temptation *Tentación
Toleration Tolerancia
Transfiguration Transfiguración
Transformation Transformación
Translation *Traducción
Transportation Transportación
Tribulation Tribulación
Trituration Trituration
Vacation Vacación
Vegetation Vegetación
Veneration Veneración
Ventilation Ventilación
Verification Verificación
Violation Violación (usually means rape in Spanish)
Vocation Vocación

THE 100 MOST USED VERBS IN ENGLISH

accept
allow
ask
believe
borrow
break
bring
buy
can/be able
cancel
change
clean
comb
complain
cough
count
cut
dance
draw
drink
drive
eat
explain
fall
fill
find
finish
fit
fix
fly
forget
give
go
have
hear
hurt
know
learn
leave
listen
live
look
lose
make/do
need
open

________________________________________________________________________

close/shut
organize
pay
play
put
rain
read
reply
run
say
see
sell
send
sign
sing
sit
sleep
smoke
speak
spell
spend
stand
start/begin
study
succeed
swim
take
talk
teach
tell
think
translate
travel
try
turn off
turn on
type
understand
use
wait
wake up
want
watch
work
worry
write
_____________________________________________________
Infinitive Simple Past Past Participle Spanish
answer answered answered responder
arrive arrived arrived llegar
ask asked asked preguntar
be i was / were been ser
borrow borrowed borrowed tomar prestado
break i broke broken romper
buy i bought bought comprar
catch i caught caught atrapar
clean cleaned cleaned limpiar
climb climbed climbed escalar
collect collected collected colleccionar
come i came come venir
compose composed composed componer
cook cooked cooked cocinar
cut i cut cut cortar
dance danced danced bailar
describe described described describir
discover discovered discovered descubrir
do i did done hacer
drink i drank drunk beber
drive i drove driven conducir
eat i ate eaten comer
enjoy enjoyed enjoyed disfrutar
fall i fell fallen caer
feel i felt felt sentir
find i found found encontrar
fly i flew flown volar
forget i forgot forgotten olvidar
give i gave given dar
go i went gone ir
happen happened happened suceder
have i had had tener
help helped helped ayudar
hurt i hurt hurt herir, doler
invent invented invented inventar
invite invited invited invitar
kill killed killed matar
know i knew known saber
lend i lent lent prestar
leave i left left dejar
lie i lay lain yacer
like liked liked gustar
live lived lived vivir
look looked looked mirar
love loved loved amar
make i made made hacer
meet i met met conocer, encontrar
miss missed missed perder, extrañar
open opened opened abrir
pack packed packed empacar
pay i paid paid pagar
phone phoned phoned llamar por teléfono
play played played jugar
prefer preferred preferred preferir
prepare prepared prepared preparar
push pushed pushed empujar
put i put put poner
rain rained rained llover
read i read read leer
remember remembered remembered recordar
rent rented rented alquilar
rescue rescued rescued rescatar
return returned returned volver, devolver
ring i rang rung llamar por teléfono
save saved saved ahorrar
say i said said decir
search searched searched buscar
see i saw seen ver
sell i sold sold vender
sit i sat sat sentarse
skate skated skated patinar
ski skied skied esquiar
sleep i slept slept dormir
smell smelled smelled oler
speak i spoke spoken hablar
spend i spent spent gastar
start started started comenzar
stay stayed stayed quedarse
stop stopped stopped detener
study studied studied estudiar
survive survived survived sobrevivir
swim i swam swum nadar
take i took taken tomar
talk talked talked hablar
teach i taught taught enseñar
tell i told told decir
think i thought thought pensar
throw i threw thrown lanzar
touch touched touched tocar
try tried tried intentar
understand i understood understood entender
use used used usar
visit visited visited visitar
wait waited waited esperar
walk walked walked caminar
want wanted wanted querer
wash washed washed lavar
watch watched watched mirar
wear i wore worn llevar puesto
work worked worked trabajar
write i wrote written escribir

_________________________________________________________________________

Infinitive Simple Past Past Participle Spanish
add added added agregar
answer answered answered responder
apologise apologised apologised disculparse
arrest arrested arrested arrestar
arrive arrived arrived llegar
ask asked asked preguntar
attack attacked attacked atacar
be i was / were been ser
become i became become convertirse
begin i began begun comenzar
believe believed believed creer
boil boiled boiled hervir
book booked booked reservar
borrow borrowed borrowed tomar prestado
break i broke broken romper
bring i brought brought traer
build i built built construir
buy i bought bought comprar
catch i caught caught atrapar
carry carried carried llevar
change changed changed cambiar
chop chopped chopped picar
clean cleaned cleaned limpiar
climb climbed climbed escalar
collect collected collected colleccionar
come i came come venir
compose composed composed componer
cook cooked cooked cocinar
copy copied copied copiar
cut i cut cut cortar
dance danced danced bailar
describe described described describir
destroy destroyed destroyed destruir
die died died morir
discover discovered discovered descubrir
discuss discussed discussed discutir
do i did done hacer
draw i drew drawn dibujar
dream i dreamt/dreamed dreamt/dreamed soñar
drink i drank drunk beber
drive i drove driven conducir
dye dyed dyed teñir
eat i ate eaten comer
enjoy enjoyed enjoyed disfrutar
explode exploded exploded explotar
extinguish extinguished extinguished extinguirse
fall i fell fallen caer
feed i fed fed alimentar
feel i felt felt sentir
fight i fought fought pelear
find i found found encontrar
fly i flew flown volar
forget i forgot forgotten olvidar
freeze i froze frozen congelar
fry fried fried freír
give i gave given dar
go i went gone ir
grow i grew grown crecer
happen happened happened suceder
hate hated hated odiar
have i had had tener
hear i heard heard oír
help helped helped ayudar
hire hired hired alquilar
hope hoped hoped esperar
hunt hunted hunted cazar
hurt i hurt hurt herir, doler
imagine imagined imagined imaginar
invent invented invented inventar
invite invited invited invitar
jump jumped jumped saltar
keep i kept kept guardar
kill killed killed matar
know i knew known saber
leave i left left dejar
lend i lent lent prestar
lie i lay lain yacer
lie lied lied mentir
lift lifted lifted levantar
like liked liked gustar
listen listened listened escuchar
live lived lived vivir
look looked looked mirar
lose i lost lost perder
love loved loved amar
make i made made hacer
meet i met met conocer, encontrar
miss missed missed perder, extrañar
offer offered offered ofrecer
open opened opened abrir
pack packed packed empacar
pass passed passed pasar, aprobar
pay i paid paid pagar
peel peeled peeled pelar
phone phoned phoned llamar por teléfono
plan planned planned planificar
play played played jugar
pour poured poured verter
prefer preferred preferred preferir
prepare prepared prepared preparar
push pushed pushed empujar
put i put put poner
rain rained rained llover
read i read read leer
reduce reduced reduced reducir
remember remembered remembered recordar
rent rented rented alquilar
rescue rescued rescued rescatar
return returned returned volver, devolver
ring i rang rung llamar por teléfono
run i ran run correr
save saved saved ahorrar
say i said said decir
search searched searched buscar
send i sent sent enviar
scream screamed screamed gritar
see i saw seen ver
sell i sold sold vender
shine i shone shone brillar
shoot i shot shot disparar
shut i shut shut cerrar
sing i sang sung cantar
sit i sat sat sentarse
skate skated skated patinar
ski skied skied esquiar
sleep i slept slept dormir
smell smelled smelled oler
snore snored snored roncar
speak i spoke spoken hablar
spend i spent spent gastar
start started started comenzar
stay stayed stayed quedarse
steal i stole stolen robar
stop stopped stopped detener
study studied studied estudiar
survive survived survived sobrevivir
swim i swam swum nadar
take i took taken tomar
talk talked talked hablar
teach i taught taught enseñar
tell i told told decir
thank thanked thanked agradecer
think i thought thought pensar
throw i threw thrown lanzar
touch touched touched tocar
try tried tried intentar
use used used usar
understand i understood understood entender
visit visited visited visitar
wait waited waited esperar
walk walked walked caminar
want wanted wanted querer
warn warned warned advertir
wash washed washed lavar
watch watched watched mirar
wear i wore worn llevar puesto
win i won won ganar
work worked worked trabajar
write i wrote written escribir

_____________________________________________________________

Verbos modales

Los verbos modales realizan una función similar a la de los verbos
auxiliares. Dan información adicional sobre el verbo que los sigue y se
utilizan para indicar posibilidad, probabilidad, certeza, deducción,
capacidad, consejo, obligación, prohibición, permiso, hacer peticiones,
ofrecimientos, sugerencias, etc.

Son verbos modales: can, could, may, might, must, ought to, shall,
should, will y would.

Los verbos modales tienen algunas características que los diferencian de los verbos normales:
1. Los modales van seguidos siempre de un verbo en infinitivo:

She must leave in a few minutes.
I think it will look rather nice.
Things might have been so different.
People may be watching.
She ought to go straight back to England.
My sister can’t drive yet.
You could be right.
Shall we go out for a meal tonight?
You should study harder.
Would you finish this for me?

2. Los modales sólo tienen una forma. No añaden ‘-s’ a la tercera
persona del singular del presente y no tienen formas acabadas en ‘-
ing’ o en ‘-ed’. Tampoco tienen infinitivo.

There’s nothing I can do about it.
I’m sure he can do it.
2

3. Los verbos modales no necesitan el auxiliar DO para la forma
negativa ni para las preguntas. Para la forma negativa de un modal
simplemente añadimos NOT o una palabra negativa inmediatamente
detrás del modal.

You must not worry.
I can never remember his name.
‘Can + not’ se escribe siembre como una palabra, ‘cannot’.
I cannot go back. = I can’t go back.

En inglés hablado o escrito informal ‘not’ se contrae en ‘-n’t’ y se
añade al modal:

could not -> couldn’t We couldn’t leave the farm.
should not -> shouldn’t You shouldn’t talk like that.
must not -> mustn’t You mustn’t talk about Ron like that.
would not -> wouldn’t I wouldn’t do it if I were you.

Las siguientes formas contractas son irregulares:

shall not -> shan’t I shan’t let you go.

will not -> won’t Won’t you change your mind?

cannot -> can’t We can’t stop now.

‘Might not’ y ‘ought not’ se contraen a veces en ‘mightn’t’ y

‘oughtn’t’. Sin embargo, es muy raro que ‘may not’ aparezca como
‘mayn’t’ en inglés moderno.

Para hacer una pregunta, se pone el modal delante del sujeto.

Could you give me an example?
Will you be coming in later?
Shall I shut the door?

4. La mayoría de los verbos modales no se pueden utilizar en tiempos
de pasado o futuro. Por ejemplo, no podemos decir

*She will can come with me.

Tampoco es correcto *We musted study a lot.

Cuando nos referimos al pasado, utilizamos un modal seguido de ‘have’ y un
participio pasado:

They may have seen the film – Puede que hayan visto la película

5. Los modales no indican normalmente el tiempo en que ocurre
algo. Sin embargo, ‘shall’ y ‘will’ indican a menudo un hecho o una
situación futura.

I shall do what you suggested.
He will not return for many hours.

6. En inglés hablado y en inglés escrito informal, ‘shall’ y ‘will’ se
utilizan en forma contracta como ‘ll. ‘Would’ se contrae en ‘d.

I’ll see you tomorrow.
I hope you’ll agree.
Mary said she’d love to stay.

‘Shall’, ‘will’ y ‘would’ no se contraen cuando van al final de una
oración.
Paul said he would come, and I hope he will.

ATENCIÓN: La forma contracta del auxiliar ‘had’ es también ‘d.

I’d heard it many times. = I had heard it many times.

7. ‘Could’ se utiliza como pasado de ‘can’ para expresar habilidad.
‘Would’ se utiliza en estilo indirecto como reporting verb de ‘will’
para expresar futuro.

When I was young, I could run for miles.
I will see my mother tomorrow
–> He said that he would see his mother the next day.

8. Nunca se usan dos modales juntos. Por ejemplo, no se puede decir
*”He will can come”. En su lugar se puede utilizar BE ABLE TO:

“He will be able to come”.

De la misma forma, tampoco podemos decir *”I will must go”. Pero
podemos utilizar HAVE TO:

“I will have to go”.

9. Los modales se pueden utilizar en question tags :

You won’t tell her, will you?
She can drive, can’t she?

Prohibición / Obligación / Ausencia de obligación / Permiso
Prohibición Obligación Ausencia de obligación Permiso

mustn’t
You mustn’t run in the corridor

must
You must be here on time

needn’t
You needn’t come tomorrow

can
You can use your book

can’t
You can’t use your dictionary in the exam

have (got) to
You have to wear a uniform
You’ve got to be quiet.

don’t have to
You don’t have to buy it

may
May I use your car?

may not
You may not use your mobile phone here

should
You should bring your book

haven’t got to
I haven’t got to do any homework

could
Could I take another biscuit?

shall not
You shall not leave without permission

ought to
It’s very cold. You ought to take a coat

didn’t need to
I didn’t need to take the bus because it was just across the road.

needn’t have +past participle
You needn’t have come (You came although it wasn’t necessary)

5
Habilidad o capacidad / Posibilidad o probabilidad / Certeza
/ Deducciones Habilidad o Capacidad Posibilidad o probabilidad Certeza Deducciones

can
I can speak French

can
The temperature in Jaén can reach 40ºC in July

will
Most of you will have heard of this.

must
You must be Tom’s father.

could
When I was younger I could play tennis quite well.

could
They could be friends

would
You would agree that changes

must be done
can’t
She can’t have left the party.

be able to
- I’ll be able to finish it on time.
- We were able to talk to the headteacher. (We actually talked to her)

may
It may rain

should
She should be sad living in Great Britain

must have + past participle
She must have forgotten

might
It might be true

shall
We shall be leaving as soon as we are ready.

can’t have + past participle
She can’t have finished yet

may have + past participle
She may have forgotten it

must have + past participle
I must have left my credit card in the bookshop (I’m sure I did)

might have + past participle
They might have arrived

could have + past participle
He could have killed her

6
Peticiones / Ofrecimientos / Sugerencias y consejos / Deseos
Peticiones Ofrecimientos Sugerencias y consejos Deseos

can
Can you help me?

can
Can I help you?

should
You should ask your teacher

would
I would like to know the answer.

could
Could I interrupt you?

may
May I help you?

ought to
She ought to be more careful

would rather
I would rather have left

will
Will you open the window, please?

shall
Shall I close the door?

could
We could go to the cinema.

would sooner
I’d sooner walk than go by bus

would you mind if
Would you mind If I used your car?

will
Will you have a cup of tea?

should have + past participle
She ought to have finished it.

would you mind + V-ing
Would you mind bringing some bread?

would
Would you like a drink?

shall
Shall we meet outside the bank?

should
Should I phone for a taxi for you?

can
You can take a taxi if you are tired

might
You might like to come with us

had better
You’d better leave now (we might have a quarrel)

http://webs.ono.com/lallena/ModalVerbs.html

_____________________________________________________________

Abbreviation Abreviatura, Abreviación
Abdication Abdicación
Acclamation Aclamación
Accumulation Acumulación
Administration Administración
Admiration Admiración
Adoration Adoración
Affirmation Afirmación
Agglomeration Aglomeración
Agitation Agitación
Allegation Alegación
Animation Animación
Anticipation Anticipación
Application Aplicación
Assassination *Asesinato
Assimilation Asimilación
Association Asociación
Authentication Autenticación
Authorization Autorización
Automation Automatización
Aviation Aviación
Celebration Celebración
Cessation Cesación
Circulation Circulación
Civilization Civilización
Classification Clasificación
Collaboration Colaboración
Combination Combinación
Commemoration Conmemoración
Commendation Recomendación
Communication Comunicación
Compensation Compensación
Compilation Compilación
Concentration Concentración
Condemnation Condenación
Condensation Condensación
Confirmation Confirmación
Confiscation Confiscación
Confrontation **Enfrentamiento
Congratulation Feliciatión
Congregation Congregación
Consideration Consideración
Consolation *Consuelo
Constellation Constelación
Consternation Consternación
Consultation Consultación
Contamination Contaminación
Contemplation Contemplación
Continuation Continuación
Conversation Conversación
Cooperation Cooperación
Coronation Coronación
Corporation Corporación
Correlation Correlación
Corroboration Corroboración
Creation Creación
Cultivation Cultivo*
Declaration Declaración
Degeneration Degeneración
Degradation Degradación
Delegation Delegación
Deliberation Deliberación
Delineation Delineación
Demonstration Demostración Manifestación (protest)
Deregulation Dereglamentación
Derivation Derivación
Derogation Detracción
Desecration Desecration
Desegregation Desegregation
Desolation Desolación
Destination Destino
Determination Determinación
Detestation *Aborrecimiento
Detonation Detonación
Dictation *Dictado
Differentiation Differentiation
Discrimination Discriminación
Disputation *disputa
Dissemination Diseminación
Documentation Documentación
Domestication Domestication
Domination Dominación
Donation Donación
Duration Duración
Education Educación
Ejaculation Eyaculación
Elaboration Elaboración
Elevation Elevación
Elimination Eliminación
Emancipation Emancipación
Emulation Emulación
Equation Ecuación
Evacuation Evacuación
Exaggeration Exageración
Examination *Examen
Exclamation Exclamación
Excommunication *Excomunión
Expectation *Expectativa
Experimentation Experimentación
Explanation Explicación
Exploration Exploración
Expostulation Expostulation
Extermination Exterminio
Exultation Exultation
Facilitation Facilitación
Fascination Fascinación
Federation Confederación
Fermentation Fermentación
Formation Formación
Formulation Fórmulación
Foundation Fundación
Generation Generación
Germination Germinación
Gratification Gratificación
Gravitation Gravitación
Hallucination *Alucinación
Hesitation Vacilación
Hibernation Hibernación
Humiliation Humillación
Identification Identificación
Illumination Iluminación
Illustration Ilustración
Imagination Imaginación
Imitation Imitación
Immigration Inmigración
Implication Implicación
Inclination Inclinación
Indentation Indentación
Indication Indicación
Indignation Indignación
Information Información
Initiation Iniciación
Innovation Innovación
Inoculation Inoculación
Insinuation Insinuación
Inspiration Inspiración
Installation Instalación
Instigation Provocación
Interpretation Interpretación
Intimation Intimación
Intonation Entonación
Inundation Inundación
Investigation Investigación (research)
Invitation Invitación
Invocation Invocación
Isolation Aislamiento
Justification Justificación
Lamentation Lamentación
Legislation Legislación
Limitation Limitación
Litigation Litigación
Location Ubicación
Maceration Maceración
Machination Maquinación
Manifestation Manifestación
Manipulation Manipulación
Mastication Masticación
Materialization Materialización
Meditation Mediación
Mineralisation Mineralisation
Moderation Moderación
Modification Modificación
Mutilation Mutilación
Narration Narración
Nation Nación
Naturalization Naturalización
Obligation Obligación
Observation Observación
Occupation Ocupación
Operation Operación
Organization Organización
Orientation Orientación
Ovation Ovación
Overpopulation *Superpoblación
Participation Participación
Penetration Penetración
Perspiration *Transpiración
Perturbation Perturbación
Population *Población
Precipitation Precipitación
Predestination Predestinación
Premeditation Premeditación
Preparation Preparación
Presentation Presentación
Preservation **Conservación
Privation Privación
Proliferation Proliferación
Prolongation Prolongación
Pronunciation Pronunciación
Propagation Propagación
Provocation Provocación
Publication Publicación
Punctuation Puntuación
Qualification **Cualificación
Realization Realización
Recitation Recitación
Reconciliation Conciliación
Recreation Recreación
Rectification Rectificación
Registration Inscripción
Regulation Regulación
Rehabilitation Rehabilitación
Relation Relación
Renunciation Renunciación
Reorganization Reorganización
Representation Representación
Reprobation Reprobation
Reputation Reputación
Respiration Respiración
Restoration Restauración
Retaliation Retaliación Represalia
Revelation Revelación
Salutation Salutación
Salvation Salvación
Segregation Segregación
Sensation Sensación
Separation Separación
Signification Significación
Simulation Simulación
Situation Situación
Sophistication Sofisticación
Speculation Especulación
Stagnation *Estancación Estancamiento
Starvation **Inanición
Station Estación
Stipulation Estipulación
Temptation *Tentación
Toleration Tolerancia
Transfiguration Transfiguración
Transformation Transformación
Translation *Traducción
Transportation Transportación
Tribulation Tribulación
Trituration Trituration
Vacation Vacación
Vegetation Vegetación
Veneration Veneración
Ventilation Ventilación
Verification Verificación
Violation Violación (usually means rape in Spanish)
Vocation Vocación

THE 100 MOST USED VERBS IN ENGLISH

accept
allow
ask
believe
borrow
break
bring
buy
can/be able
cancel
change
clean
comb
complain
cough
count
cut
dance
draw
drink
drive
eat
explain
fall
fill
find
finish
fit
fix
fly
forget
give
go
have
hear
hurt
know
learn
leave
listen
live
look
lose
make/do
need
open

________________________________________________________________________

close/shut
organize
pay
play
put
rain
read
reply
run
say
see
sell
send
sign
sing
sit
sleep
smoke
speak
spell
spend
stand
start/begin
study
succeed
swim
take
talk
teach
tell
think
translate
travel
try
turn off
turn on
type
understand
use
wait
wake up
want
watch
work
worry
write
_____________________________________________________
Infinitive Simple Past Past Participle Spanish
answer answered answered responder
arrive arrived arrived llegar
ask asked asked preguntar
be i was / were been ser
borrow borrowed borrowed tomar prestado
break i broke broken romper
buy i bought bought comprar
catch i caught caught atrapar
clean cleaned cleaned limpiar
climb climbed climbed escalar
collect collected collected colleccionar
come i came come venir
compose composed composed componer
cook cooked cooked cocinar
cut i cut cut cortar
dance danced danced bailar
describe described described describir
discover discovered discovered descubrir
do i did done hacer
drink i drank drunk beber
drive i drove driven conducir
eat i ate eaten comer
enjoy enjoyed enjoyed disfrutar
fall i fell fallen caer
feel i felt felt sentir
find i found found encontrar
fly i flew flown volar
forget i forgot forgotten olvidar
give i gave given dar
go i went gone ir
happen happened happened suceder
have i had had tener
help helped helped ayudar
hurt i hurt hurt herir, doler
invent invented invented inventar
invite invited invited invitar
kill killed killed matar
know i knew known saber
lend i lent lent prestar
leave i left left dejar
lie i lay lain yacer
like liked liked gustar
live lived lived vivir
look looked looked mirar
love loved loved amar
make i made made hacer
meet i met met conocer, encontrar
miss missed missed perder, extrañar
open opened opened abrir
pack packed packed empacar
pay i paid paid pagar
phone phoned phoned llamar por teléfono
play played played jugar
prefer preferred preferred preferir
prepare prepared prepared preparar
push pushed pushed empujar
put i put put poner
rain rained rained llover
read i read read leer
remember remembered remembered recordar
rent rented rented alquilar
rescue rescued rescued rescatar
return returned returned volver, devolver
ring i rang rung llamar por teléfono
save saved saved ahorrar
say i said said decir
search searched searched buscar
see i saw seen ver
sell i sold sold vender
sit i sat sat sentarse
skate skated skated patinar
ski skied skied esquiar
sleep i slept slept dormir
smell smelled smelled oler
speak i spoke spoken hablar
spend i spent spent gastar
start started started comenzar
stay stayed stayed quedarse
stop stopped stopped detener
study studied studied estudiar
survive survived survived sobrevivir
swim i swam swum nadar
take i took taken tomar
talk talked talked hablar
teach i taught taught enseñar
tell i told told decir
think i thought thought pensar
throw i threw thrown lanzar
touch touched touched tocar
try tried tried intentar
understand i understood understood entender
use used used usar
visit visited visited visitar
wait waited waited esperar
walk walked walked caminar
want wanted wanted querer
wash washed washed lavar
watch watched watched mirar
wear i wore worn llevar puesto
work worked worked trabajar
write i wrote written escribir

_________________________________________________________________________

Infinitive Simple Past Past Participle Spanish
add added added agregar
answer answered answered responder
apologise apologised apologised disculparse
arrest arrested arrested arrestar
arrive arrived arrived llegar
ask asked asked preguntar
attack attacked attacked atacar
be i was / were been ser
become i became become convertirse
begin i began begun comenzar
believe believed believed creer
boil boiled boiled hervir
book booked booked reservar
borrow borrowed borrowed tomar prestado
break i broke broken romper
bring i brought brought traer
build i built built construir
buy i bought bought comprar
catch i caught caught atrapar
carry carried carried llevar
change changed changed cambiar
chop chopped chopped picar
clean cleaned cleaned limpiar
climb climbed climbed escalar
collect collected collected colleccionar
come i came come venir
compose composed composed componer
cook cooked cooked cocinar
copy copied copied copiar
cut i cut cut cortar
dance danced danced bailar
describe described described describir
destroy destroyed destroyed destruir
die died died morir
discover discovered discovered descubrir
discuss discussed discussed discutir
do i did done hacer
draw i drew drawn dibujar
dream i dreamt/dreamed dreamt/dreamed soñar
drink i drank drunk beber
drive i drove driven conducir
dye dyed dyed teñir
eat i ate eaten comer
enjoy enjoyed enjoyed disfrutar
explode exploded exploded explotar
extinguish extinguished extinguished extinguirse
fall i fell fallen caer
feed i fed fed alimentar
feel i felt felt sentir
fight i fought fought pelear
find i found found encontrar
fly i flew flown volar
forget i forgot forgotten olvidar
freeze i froze frozen congelar
fry fried fried freír
give i gave given dar
go i went gone ir
grow i grew grown crecer
happen happened happened suceder
hate hated hated odiar
have i had had tener
hear i heard heard oír
help helped helped ayudar
hire hired hired alquilar
hope hoped hoped esperar
hunt hunted hunted cazar
hurt i hurt hurt herir, doler
imagine imagined imagined imaginar
invent invented invented inventar
invite invited invited invitar
jump jumped jumped saltar
keep i kept kept guardar
kill killed killed matar
know i knew known saber
leave i left left dejar
lend i lent lent prestar
lie i lay lain yacer
lie lied lied mentir
lift lifted lifted levantar
like liked liked gustar
listen listened listened escuchar
live lived lived vivir
look looked looked mirar
lose i lost lost perder
love loved loved amar
make i made made hacer
meet i met met conocer, encontrar
miss missed missed perder, extrañar
offer offered offered ofrecer
open opened opened abrir
pack packed packed empacar
pass passed passed pasar, aprobar
pay i paid paid pagar
peel peeled peeled pelar
phone phoned phoned llamar por teléfono
plan planned planned planificar
play played played jugar
pour poured poured verter
prefer preferred preferred preferir
prepare prepared prepared preparar
push pushed pushed empujar
put i put put poner
rain rained rained llover
read i read read leer
reduce reduced reduced reducir
remember remembered remembered recordar
rent rented rented alquilar
rescue rescued rescued rescatar
return returned returned volver, devolver
ring i rang rung llamar por teléfono
run i ran run correr
save saved saved ahorrar
say i said said decir
search searched searched buscar
send i sent sent enviar
scream screamed screamed gritar
see i saw seen ver
sell i sold sold vender
shine i shone shone brillar
shoot i shot shot disparar
shut i shut shut cerrar
sing i sang sung cantar
sit i sat sat sentarse
skate skated skated patinar
ski skied skied esquiar
sleep i slept slept dormir
smell smelled smelled oler
snore snored snored roncar
speak i spoke spoken hablar
spend i spent spent gastar
start started started comenzar
stay stayed stayed quedarse
steal i stole stolen robar
stop stopped stopped detener
study studied studied estudiar
survive survived survived sobrevivir
swim i swam swum nadar
take i took taken tomar
talk talked talked hablar
teach i taught taught enseñar
tell i told told decir
thank thanked thanked agradecer
think i thought thought pensar
throw i threw thrown lanzar
touch touched touched tocar
try tried tried intentar
use used used usar
understand i understood understood entender
visit visited visited visitar
wait waited waited esperar
walk walked walked caminar
want wanted wanted querer
warn warned warned advertir
wash washed washed lavar
watch watched watched mirar
wear i wore worn llevar puesto
win i won won ganar
work worked worked trabajar
write i wrote written escribir

_____________________________________________________________

Verbos modales

Los verbos modales realizan una función similar a la de los verbos
auxiliares. Dan información adicional sobre el verbo que los sigue y se
utilizan para indicar posibilidad, probabilidad, certeza, deducción,
capacidad, consejo, obligación, prohibición, permiso, hacer peticiones,
ofrecimientos, sugerencias, etc.

Son verbos modales: can, could, may, might, must, ought to, shall,
should, will y would.

Los verbos modales tienen algunas características que los diferencian de los verbos normales:
1. Los modales van seguidos siempre de un verbo en infinitivo:

She must leave in a few minutes.
I think it will look rather nice.
Things might have been so different.
People may be watching.
She ought to go straight back to England.
My sister can’t drive yet.
You could be right.
Shall we go out for a meal tonight?
You should study harder.
Would you finish this for me?

2. Los modales sólo tienen una forma. No añaden ‘-s’ a la tercera
persona del singular del presente y no tienen formas acabadas en ‘-
ing’ o en ‘-ed’. Tampoco tienen infinitivo.

There’s nothing I can do about it.
I’m sure he can do it.
2

3. Los verbos modales no necesitan el auxiliar DO para la forma
negativa ni para las preguntas. Para la forma negativa de un modal
simplemente añadimos NOT o una palabra negativa inmediatamente
detrás del modal.

You must not worry.
I can never remember his name.
‘Can + not’ se escribe siembre como una palabra, ‘cannot’.
I cannot go back. = I can’t go back.

En inglés hablado o escrito informal ‘not’ se contrae en ‘-n’t’ y se
añade al modal:

could not -> couldn’t We couldn’t leave the farm.
should not -> shouldn’t You shouldn’t talk like that.
must not -> mustn’t You mustn’t talk about Ron like that.
would not -> wouldn’t I wouldn’t do it if I were you.

Las siguientes formas contractas son irregulares:

shall not -> shan’t I shan’t let you go.

will not -> won’t Won’t you change your mind?

cannot -> can’t We can’t stop now.

‘Might not’ y ‘ought not’ se contraen a veces en ‘mightn’t’ y

‘oughtn’t’. Sin embargo, es muy raro que ‘may not’ aparezca como
‘mayn’t’ en inglés moderno.

Para hacer una pregunta, se pone el modal delante del sujeto.

Could you give me an example?
Will you be coming in later?
Shall I shut the door?

4. La mayoría de los verbos modales no se pueden utilizar en tiempos
de pasado o futuro. Por ejemplo, no podemos decir

*She will can come with me.

Tampoco es correcto *We musted study a lot.

Cuando nos referimos al pasado, utilizamos un modal seguido de ‘have’ y un
participio pasado:

They may have seen the film – Puede que hayan visto la película

5. Los modales no indican normalmente el tiempo en que ocurre
algo. Sin embargo, ‘shall’ y ‘will’ indican a menudo un hecho o una
situación futura.

I shall do what you suggested.
He will not return for many hours.

6. En inglés hablado y en inglés escrito informal, ‘shall’ y ‘will’ se
utilizan en forma contracta como ‘ll. ‘Would’ se contrae en ‘d.

I’ll see you tomorrow.
I hope you’ll agree.
Mary said she’d love to stay.

‘Shall’, ‘will’ y ‘would’ no se contraen cuando van al final de una
oración.
Paul said he would come, and I hope he will.

ATENCIÓN: La forma contracta del auxiliar ‘had’ es también ‘d.

I’d heard it many times. = I had heard it many times.

7. ‘Could’ se utiliza como pasado de ‘can’ para expresar habilidad.
‘Would’ se utiliza en estilo indirecto como reporting verb de ‘will’
para expresar futuro.

When I was young, I could run for miles.
I will see my mother tomorrow
–> He said that he would see his mother the next day.

8. Nunca se usan dos modales juntos. Por ejemplo, no se puede decir
*”He will can come”. En su lugar se puede utilizar BE ABLE TO:

“He will be able to come”.

De la misma forma, tampoco podemos decir *”I will must go”. Pero
podemos utilizar HAVE TO:

“I will have to go”.

9. Los modales se pueden utilizar en question tags :

You won’t tell her, will you?
She can drive, can’t she?

Prohibición / Obligación / Ausencia de obligación / Permiso
Prohibición Obligación Ausencia de obligación Permiso

mustn’t
You mustn’t run in the corridor

must
You must be here on time

needn’t
You needn’t come tomorrow

can
You can use your book

can’t
You can’t use your dictionary in the exam

have (got) to
You have to wear a uniform
You’ve got to be quiet.

don’t have to
You don’t have to buy it

may
May I use your car?

may not
You may not use your mobile phone here

should
You should bring your book

haven’t got to
I haven’t got to do any homework

could
Could I take another biscuit?

shall not
You shall not leave without permission

ought to
It’s very cold. You ought to take a coat

didn’t need to
I didn’t need to take the bus because it was just across the road.

needn’t have +past participle
You needn’t have come (You came although it wasn’t necessary)

5
Habilidad o capacidad / Posibilidad o probabilidad / Certeza
/ Deducciones Habilidad o Capacidad Posibilidad o probabilidad Certeza Deducciones

can
I can speak French

can
The temperature in Jaén can reach 40ºC in July

will
Most of you will have heard of this.

must
You must be Tom’s father.

could
When I was younger I could play tennis quite well.

could
They could be friends

would
You would agree that changes

must be done
can’t
She can’t have left the party.

be able to
- I’ll be able to finish it on time.
- We were able to talk to the headteacher. (We actually talked to her)

may
It may rain

should
She should be sad living in Great Britain

must have + past participle
She must have forgotten

might
It might be true

shall
We shall be leaving as soon as we are ready.

can’t have + past participle
She can’t have finished yet

may have + past participle
She may have forgotten it

must have + past participle
I must have left my credit card in the bookshop (I’m sure I did)

might have + past participle
They might have arrived

could have + past participle
He could have killed her

6
Peticiones / Ofrecimientos / Sugerencias y consejos / Deseos
Peticiones Ofrecimientos Sugerencias y consejos Deseos

can
Can you help me?

can
Can I help you?

should
You should ask your teacher

would
I would like to know the answer.

could
Could I interrupt you?

may
May I help you?

ought to
She ought to be more careful

would rather
I would rather have left

will
Will you open the window, please?

shall
Shall I close the door?

could
We could go to the cinema.

would sooner
I’d sooner walk than go by bus

would you mind if
Would you mind If I used your car?

will
Will you have a cup of tea?

should have + past participle
She ought to have finished it.

would you mind + V-ing
Would you mind bringing some bread?

would
Would you like a drink?

shall
Shall we meet outside the bank?

should
Should I phone for a taxi for you?

can
You can take a taxi if you are tired

might
You might like to come with us

had better
You’d better leave now (we might have a quarrel)

http://webs.ono.com/lallena/ModalVerbs.html

_____________________________________________________________

Abbreviation Abreviatura, Abreviación
Abdication Abdicación
Acclamation Aclamación
Accumulation Acumulación
Administration Administración
Admiration Admiración
Adoration Adoración
Affirmation Afirmación
Agglomeration Aglomeración
Agitation Agitación
Allegation Alegación
Animation Animación
Anticipation Anticipación
Application Aplicación
Assassination *Asesinato
Assimilation Asimilación
Association Asociación
Authentication Autenticación
Authorization Autorización
Automation Automatización
Aviation Aviación
Celebration Celebración
Cessation Cesación
Circulation Circulación
Civilization Civilización
Classification Clasificación
Collaboration Colaboración
Combination Combinación
Commemoration Conmemoración
Commendation Recomendación
Communication Comunicación
Compensation Compensación
Compilation Compilación
Concentration Concentración
Condemnation Condenación
Condensation Condensación
Confirmation Confirmación
Confiscation Confiscación
Confrontation **Enfrentamiento
Congratulation Feliciatión
Congregation Congregación
Consideration Consideración
Consolation *Consuelo
Constellation Constelación
Consternation Consternación
Consultation Consultación
Contamination Contaminación
Contemplation Contemplación
Continuation Continuación
Conversation Conversación
Cooperation Cooperación
Coronation Coronación
Corporation Corporación
Correlation Correlación
Corroboration Corroboración
Creation Creación
Cultivation Cultivo*
Declaration Declaración
Degeneration Degeneración
Degradation Degradación
Delegation Delegación
Deliberation Deliberación
Delineation Delineación
Demonstration Demostración Manifestación (protest)
Deregulation Dereglamentación
Derivation Derivación
Derogation Detracción
Desecration Desecration
Desegregation Desegregation
Desolation Desolación
Destination Destino
Determination Determinación
Detestation *Aborrecimiento
Detonation Detonación
Dictation *Dictado
Differentiation Differentiation
Discrimination Discriminación
Disputation *disputa
Dissemination Diseminación
Documentation Documentación
Domestication Domestication
Domination Dominación
Donation Donación
Duration Duración
Education Educación
Ejaculation Eyaculación
Elaboration Elaboración
Elevation Elevación
Elimination Eliminación
Emancipation Emancipación
Emulation Emulación
Equation Ecuación
Evacuation Evacuación
Exaggeration Exageración
Examination *Examen
Exclamation Exclamación
Excommunication *Excomunión
Expectation *Expectativa
Experimentation Experimentación
Explanation Explicación
Exploration Exploración
Expostulation Expostulation
Extermination Exterminio
Exultation Exultation
Facilitation Facilitación
Fascination Fascinación
Federation Confederación
Fermentation Fermentación
Formation Formación
Formulation Fórmulación
Foundation Fundación
Generation Generación
Germination Germinación
Gratification Gratificación
Gravitation Gravitación
Hallucination *Alucinación
Hesitation Vacilación
Hibernation Hibernación
Humiliation Humillación
Identification Identificación
Illumination Iluminación
Illustration Ilustración
Imagination Imaginación
Imitation Imitación
Immigration Inmigración
Implication Implicación
Inclination Inclinación
Indentation Indentación
Indication Indicación
Indignation Indignación
Information Información
Initiation Iniciación
Innovation Innovación
Inoculation Inoculación
Insinuation Insinuación
Inspiration Inspiración
Installation Instalación
Instigation Provocación
Interpretation Interpretación
Intimation Intimación
Intonation Entonación
Inundation Inundación
Investigation Investigación (research)
Invitation Invitación
Invocation Invocación
Isolation Aislamiento
Justification Justificación
Lamentation Lamentación
Legislation Legislación
Limitation Limitación
Litigation Litigación
Location Ubicación
Maceration Maceración
Machination Maquinación
Manifestation Manifestación
Manipulation Manipulación
Mastication Masticación
Materialization Materialización
Meditation Mediación
Mineralisation Mineralisation
Moderation Moderación
Modification Modificación
Mutilation Mutilación
Narration Narración
Nation Nación
Naturalization Naturalización
Obligation Obligación
Observation Observación
Occupation Ocupación
Operation Operación
Organization Organización
Orientation Orientación
Ovation Ovación
Overpopulation *Superpoblación
Participation Participación
Penetration Penetración
Perspiration *Transpiración
Perturbation Perturbación
Population *Población
Precipitation Precipitación
Predestination Predestinación
Premeditation Premeditación
Preparation Preparación
Presentation Presentación
Preservation **Conservación
Privation Privación
Proliferation Proliferación
Prolongation Prolongación
Pronunciation Pronunciación
Propagation Propagación
Provocation Provocación
Publication Publicación
Punctuation Puntuación
Qualification **Cualificación
Realization Realización
Recitation Recitación
Reconciliation Conciliación
Recreation Recreación
Rectification Rectificación
Registration Inscripción
Regulation Regulación
Rehabilitation Rehabilitación
Relation Relación
Renunciation Renunciación
Reorganization Reorganización
Representation Representación
Reprobation Reprobation
Reputation Reputación
Respiration Respiración
Restoration Restauración
Retaliation Retaliación Represalia
Revelation Revelación
Salutation Salutación
Salvation Salvación
Segregation Segregación
Sensation Sensación
Separation Separación
Signification Significación
Simulation Simulación
Situation Situación
Sophistication Sofisticación
Speculation Especulación
Stagnation *Estancación Estancamiento
Starvation **Inanición
Station Estación
Stipulation Estipulación
Temptation *Tentación
Toleration Tolerancia
Transfiguration Transfiguración
Transformation Transformación
Translation *Traducción
Transportation Transportación
Tribulation Tribulación
Trituration Trituration
Vacation Vacación
Vegetation Vegetación
Veneration Veneración
Ventilation Ventilación
Verification Verificación
Violation Violación (usually means rape in Spanish)
Vocation Vocación

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